APT test/Swallowed Blood syndrome Test/ Fetal hemoglobin
Test APT test/Swallowed Blood syndrome Test/ Fetal hemoglobin
Indication This test is done to diagnose swallowed blood syndrome and differentiate this condition from gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the new born.
Normal Range Report will provide indication if blood is of maternal or infant origin (adult or fetal hemoglobin).
Auto hemolysis Test
Test Auto hemolysis Test
Indication This test is used to diagnose hereditary spherocytosis, spontaneous hemolysis, RBC enzyme deficiency and hemolytic anemia.
Interpretation Glucose by itself can induce hemolysis in auto hemolysis test in patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient RBC’s have increased auto hemolysis, which corrects significantly with glucose or ATP. Pyruvatekinase deficiency has increased auto-hemolysis, which does not correct or get aggravated with glucose but does correct toward normal with ATP.
Related Tests Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase Osmotic Fragility, Red Blood Cell Morphology, RBC enzyme deficiency.
Blood volume/Plasma volume
Test Blood volume/Plasma volume
Indication The test measures the patient’s total circulating volume of blood and/or fractions of the blood volume.
Interpretation This test differentiates relative from absolute polycythemia. Polycythemia is increased red cells and is opposite to anemia. Polycythemia is usually considered when hemoglobin is 18g/dL, hematocrit is 52% and RBC count is 6 million/mm3.
Test Results Dilution Technique using 125I – tagged albumin and/or 51Cr-tagged Red Blood Cells.
Related Tests Erythropoietin Test, Hematocrit Test, Peripheral Blood, Red Cell Mass.
Body Fluid Analysis, Cell count.
Test Body Fluid Analysis, Cell count.
Indication This test is used to evaluate body fluids, differential diagnosis of exudates and transudate.
Related Tests Body fluid amylase, Blood Glucose, Blood pH, CSF analysis, Synovial Fluid analysis.
Cold Hemolysin Test/ Donath-Landsteiner Test/PCH Test/ D-L antibody test, Paroxysmal cold Hemoglobinuria.
Test Cold Hemolysin Test/ Donath-Landsteiner Test/PCH Test/ D-L antibody test, Paroxysmal cold Hemoglobinuria.
Indication This test is to detect Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH), a condition caused by sensitization of RBC (at temperature less than 30°C) by complement binding IgG biphasic hemolysin.
Normal Range Negative
Test Method Observation of Red Cell lysis from patients cold activated serum.
Complete Blood Count/ Blood Cell Profile/ Blood Count/ CBC/ Hemogram
Test Complete Blood Count/ Blood Cell Profile/ Blood Count/ CBC/ Hemogram
Indication This test is used to evaluate anemia, leukemia, reaction to inflammation and infections, peripheral blood cellular characters, State of hydration and dehydration, Polycythemia, Hemolytic disease of the newborn, to manage chemotherapy decisions.
Normal Range Click Here To View Normal Values
Related Tests Eosinophil Count, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Differential Leukocyte Count, RBC Morphology, Platelet count, Platelet sizing, Red cell count, White blood count.
Eosinophil count/ Absolute Eosinophil count/ EOS count.
Test Eosinophil count/ Absolute Eosinophil count/ EOS count.
Indication Eosinophil test is used to diagnose allergy, drug reactions, Parasitic infections, collagen disease, Hodgkins disease, Myelo-proliferative diseases.
Normal Range 50-350/mm3.
Interpretation Eosinophils are increased in actue hypereosinophilic syndrome, angioneurotic edema, acute renal allograft rejection, eosniophilic non-allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilia myalgia syndrome. Eosinophils are decreased in Cushing’s disease (Hyper-adrenalism).
Related Tests Complete Blood Count, Eosniophil smear, Peripheral blood
Eosinophil Smear/Fecal smears for Eosinophils.
Test Eosinophil Smear/Fecal smears for Eosinophils.
Indication To detect the presence of Eosinophils in sputum and Faeces.
Normal Range No Eosinophils detected.
Interpretation Eosinophils mostly increased in blood and sputum of patients with asthma. Levels of increase by 80% of Eosinophils in sputum are diagnostic of asthma or chronic bronchitis with wheezing.
Related Tests Nasal smear for Eosinophils, Sputum smears for Eosinophils.
Fetal Hemoglobin/ HbF.
Test Fetal Hemoglobin/ HbF.
Indication The test is used to evaluate hemaglobinopathies, hemolytic anemia, hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, Thalassemia.
Normal Range 0 – 6 months : Upto 75% of HbF, 6 months – Adult: Up to 2% HbF
Related Tests Hemolytic disease of newborn, Kleinauer-betke, Sickle Cell test
Folic acid, serum/Folate level, Serum folate
Test Folic acid, serum/Folate level, Serum folate
Indication This test is done to detect the folate deficiency, monitor therapy with folate, evaluate megaloblastic and macrocytic anemia, and evaluate alcoholic patients with prior jejuno-ileal for morbid obesity or those with intestinal blind-loop syndrome.
Normal Range > 2ngl/mL, (S.I. Units – > 5 nmol/L)
Test Method Competitive Protein binding Radio Immunoassay.
Glucose – 6- Phosphate Dehydrogenase Screen, Blood.
Test Glucose – 6- Phosphate Dehydrogenase Screen, Blood.
Indication This test is used to detect drug sensitive populations of Red cells due to G-6-PD deficiency; to determine the cause of hemolysis. G-6-PD deficient hemolysis may also be secondary to acute bacterial or viral infections and metabolic disorders such as acidosis.
Normal Range G-6-PD enzyme activity detected.
Test Method Fluorescent NADPH spot test.
Related Tests G-6-PD, Quantitative, RBC enzyme deficiency
Glucose –6- Phosphate Dehydrogenase, Quantitative/ G-6-PD
Test Glucose –6- Phosphate Dehydrogenase, Quantitative/ G-6-PD
Indication This test is to evaluate G-6-PD deficiency, determine the cause of drug induced hemolysis or hemolysis secondary to acute bacterial or viral infections or metabolic disorders such as acidosis. Mutations responsible for the G-6-PD deficient state can be identified by use of molecular biologic techniques
Normal Range 8.34 ± 1.59 IU/g hemoglobin
Test Method Measure the formation of NADPH following change in absorbance at 340 nm at 370C
HAM Test/ Acid Serum Test/ PNH Test/ Paroxysmal Noctural Hemoglobinuria test, Serum lysis.
Test HAM Test/ Acid Serum Test/ PNH Test/ Paroxysmal Noctural Hemoglobinuria test, Serum lysis.
Indication HAM test is used to evaluate patients with suspected PNH (Paroxysmal Noctural Hemoglobinuria) or suspected congential dyserythropoietic anemia, especially with hemosiderinuria, Pancytopenia, decreased RBC acetyl cholinesterase, decreased leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, negative direct Coomb’s test, and/or apparent marrow failure.
Normal Range Positive test result shows lysis of Red cells in acidified serum samples with patients cell (not with normal cells).
Test Method Acidified Serum test of HAM.
Heinz Body Stain
Test Heinz Body Stain
Indication This test is used to detect hemolytic disorders associated with Heinz body formation.
Normal Range No Heinz bodies identified.
Interpretation Heinz bodies are present during G-6-PD deficiency, Heinz body hemolytic anemia (HBHA). Oxidative denaturation of hemoglobin leads to formation of Heinz bodies.
Test Method Supra vital stain.
Related Tests G-6-PD, Hemoglobin, RBC Morphology, Reticulocyte Count, RBC enzyme deficiency.
Hematocrit / Hct/ Microhematocrit /PCV/ Packed Cell Volume
Test Hematocrit / Hct/ Microhematocrit /PCV/ Packed Cell Volume
Indication Hct is used to evaluate anemia, Blood loss, hemolytic anemia, Polycythemia.
Test Method Manual Microhematocrit Centrifugation, Automated Electronic Cell Counter.
Related Tests Blood volume, Complete Blood Count, Hemoglobin, RBC Morphology, RBC indices, Red Cell count, Reticulocyte count.
Hemoglobin Test/ Hgb
Test Hemoglobin Test/ Hgb
Indication This test determines the concentration of hemoglobin in whole blood.
Interpretation Red cell indices, MCH and MCHC, depends on the Hgb for their derivative and are of use in the evaluation of anemia.
Test Method Spectrophotometry at 540 nm.
Related Tests Complete Blood Count, Erythropoietin, Ferritin, Folic acid, Hematocrit, O2 Saturation, P-50 blood gas, RBC indices, RBC, RBC count, RBC Mass, Reticulocyte Count, Sickle Cell Tests, Vitamin B12.
Kleihauer-Betke/ Acid Elution for Fetal Hemoglobin/K-B
Test Kleihauer-Betke/ Acid Elution for Fetal Hemoglobin/K-B
Indication Staining of postpartum maternal blood for identification of percentage of fetal cells present. Determine possible fetal maternal hemorrhage in the newborn, aid in diagnosis of certain types of anemia in adults; assess the magnitude of fetal maternal hemorrhage; calculate dosage of Rh immune globulin to be given.
Normal Range Full-term newborns: Hb F cells are > 90%;
Normal adults Hb F cells are < 0.01%.
Test Method Acid elution test.
Related Tests Du , Fetal hemoglobin, Rho (D) Immune Globulin, Rosette Test for Fetomaternal Hemorrhage
LE cell Test/ Lupus Test
Test LE cell Test/ Lupus Test
Indication Evaluate autoimmune diseases, Systemic Lupus erythrematous and in the diagnosis of “lupoid” hepatitis (Chronic active hepatitis).
Normal Range Negative.
Test Method Blood cells are ruptured and nuclear material is released, which interacts with specific antibody by phagocytosis.
Related Tests Anti-DNA, Antinuclear Antibody, Scleroderma Antibody, Sjogren’s Antibodies, Smooth Muscle Antibody
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase/ LAP, LAP Smear
Test Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase/ LAP, LAP Smear
Indication A cytochemical reaction is useful in differential diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, distinguishing leukemoid reaction from leukemia. Helps in the differential diagnosis of chronic granulocytic leukemia versuys leukemoid reaction, aid in the evaluation of polycythemia and myelobrois.
Normal Range Counts of 11 to 95
Interpretation Low scores have been associated with CML, PNH, thrombocytopenic purpura, and hereditary phpophosphatasia. In CML regardless of the total white count, the score remains low.
Test Method Enzyme reaction with leukocyte alkaline phosphatase liberating naphthol – Spectrophotometer assay.
Related Tests Leukocyte cytochemistry, White Blood Count
Leukocyte Cytochemistry/ Cytochemistry, Leukocyte.
Test Leukocyte Cytochemistry/ Cytochemistry, Leukocyte.
Indication Test evaluate neoplasm and abnormal cells in bone marrow, peripheral blood, or other specimens such as imprints, detect amylodois, classify leukemias and plasma cell dyscrasias, and evaluate myeloproliferative disorders.
Interpretation For each type of leukemic blast a consistent and distinctive pattern of non specific esterases activity has been reported. Isoenzyme fractions of acid phosphatases and nonspecific esterases appear to be unique for lymphoblasts, myeloblasts, and immature or leukemic monocytes.
Related Tests Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase, Muramidase, Peripheral blood differential leukocyte count, Tartarate resistant Leukocyte Acid phosphatase, White Blood count.
Malaria Smear/ Blood smear for malarial parasites/ malarial parasites
Test Malaria Smear/ Blood smear for malarial parasites/ malarial parasites
Indication Diagnose malaria, parasitic infestation of blood; evaluate febrile disease of unknown origin.
Test Method Microscopic examination of thick and thin peripheral blood smears stained with Romanovsky dye. Thick smears are more difficult to interpret but greatly increase sensitivity. Thick smears require considerable experience with malaria. Recent techniques: DNA hybridization probes for detection of malarial parasites
Related Tests Parasite Antibodies, Peripheral Blood/Red blood cell Morphology
Nitro-blue Tetrazolium Test/ NBT Test/ Tertazolium Reduction Test
Test Nitro-blue Tetrazolium Test/ NBT Test/ Tertazolium Reduction Test
Indication Diagnose Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) of childhood.
Normal Range 2% to 8% segmented neutrophils reduce dye.
Interpretation This test is a reliable aid in the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease in which neutrophils are unable to reduce the dye. In patients with CGD, the NADPH oxidase system fails to generate Superoxide and related oxygen intermediates with resultant susceptibility to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Treatment of CGD patients with recombinant interferon –γ has been shown to result in an near normal level of Superoxide production and return of granulocyte bactericidal capacity to normal control levels. Interferon-γ stimulates progenitor cells and their mature progeny.
Test Method Chronic granulomatous disease can now be diagnosed using restriction fragment length polymorphism with labelled gene probes. The abnormal gene located on the short arm of the X chromosome codes for cytochrome b558.
Osmotic Fragility/ Incubated Osmotic Fragility/ RBC fragility/ Red Cell Fragility.
Test Osmotic Fragility/ Incubated Osmotic Fragility/ RBC fragility/ Red Cell Fragility.
Indication Evaluate hemolytic anemia, especially hereditary spherocytosis, evaluate immune hemolytic states.
Normal Range Hemolysis begins 0.45%. hemolysis complete 0.35%
Interpretation Percent hemolysis is determined using optical density measurements.
Related Tests Autohemolysis Test, Red Blood Cell Morphology, Reticulocyte Count
Peripheral Blood: Differential Leukocyte count/ Differential smear/Peripheral differential White Blood Cell Morphology.
Test Peripheral Blood: Differential Leukocyte count/ Differential smear/Peripheral differential White Blood Cell Morphology.
Indication Determine qualitative and quantitative e variations in white cell numbers and morphology, morphology of red cells and platelet evaluation; evaluate anemia leukemia, infections, inflammatory states, and inherited disorders of red cells, white cells, and platelets.
Interpretation Significantly abnormal findings should be the subject of further study and review. Changes in leukocyte fractions are a window to a spectrum of minor to serious physiologic and pathologic changes.
Test Method Manual enumeration of white ells on wright’s stained peripheral blood smear. Continuous flow system (automated) using cytochemical measurements.
Related Tests Bacteremia Detection, Bone marrow, Complete Blood Count, Eosinophil Count, Infectious Mononucleosis Screening Test, Leucocyte Cytochemistry, Lymph node biopsy, Lymphocyte subset enumeration, Peripheral Blood Cell Morphology, Platelet and White Blood Cell Count
Peripheral Blood: Red Blood Cell Morphology/Blood smear Morphology
Test Peripheral Blood: Red Blood Cell Morphology/Blood smear Morphology
Indication This test is used to evaluate red cell disorders, white cell disorders, platelet disorders.
Normal Range Normal Morphology
Test Method Wright’s stained peripheral blood.
Related Tests Blood volume, Complete Blood Count, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell indices, Red Cell Count
Platelet count/ Thrombocyte count
Test Platelet count/ Thrombocyte count
Indication Test is used to evaluate, diagnose, and follow up bleeding disorders, purpura/petechiae, drug induced thrombocytopenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukemia, and chemotherapy management of malignant disease.
Normal Range 150,000-450,000/mm3 (150-450 X109/L or 150,000-450,000 mL)
Interpretation The platelet, of growing practical clinical importance in hemostatic considerations and a variety of medical/surgical processes, is also fundamental to etiology considerations of arteriosclerosis and malignant disease.
Platelet Sizing/ Mean Platelet Volume/ Platelet indices
Test Platelet Sizing/ Mean Platelet Volume/ Platelet indices
Indication Differential diagnoses of hematologic disease, assess platelet function, and guide need for platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients.
Interpretation Large platelets are young platelets and have better hemostatic function than average age of old platelets.
Test Method Flow cystometry
Related Tests Complete Blood Count, Platelet Count
Red Blood Cell Enzyme Deficiency, Quantitative/ Erythrocyte Enzyme Deficiency/ RBC enzymes.
Test Red Blood Cell Enzyme Deficiency, Quantitative/ Erythrocyte Enzyme Deficiency/ RBC enzymes.
Indication The test is used to investigate hemolytic anemia
Normal Range G-6-PD: 8.6-18.6 IU/g hemoglobin; Phospho-hexoisomerase: 14.7-42.2 IU/g hemoglobin; Pyruvate kinase: 2.0-8.8 IU/g hemoglobin.
Interpretation Individuals with low levels of RBC G6-PD deficiency include: analgesics/antipyretics: aspirin; sulfa drugs: sulfapyridine, sulfa drugs: sulfapyridine, sulfisoxazole; antimalarias: primaquine, pentaquine, quinine; nitrofurantoin; Chloromycetin, quinidine, para-ainosalicyclic acid;others. Deficient or absent RBC enzyme activity may relate to absence of or decreased level of the enzyme, presence of an inactive molecular form or of an isoenzymes with altered activity. Glutathione reductase deficiency also occurred in some cases of malnutrition, liver disease, and sepsis.
Related Tests Auto-hemolysis, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, Heinz Body Stain, Red Blood Cell Enzyme Deficiency Screen
Red Cell Count/ Erythrocyte Count, Red Blood Cell Count
Test Red Cell Count/ Erythrocyte Count, Red Blood Cell Count
Indication The test is used to evaluate anemia, polycythemia.
Normal Range Male: 4.6-6.0 X 106/mm3 ; Female: 3.9-5.5 X 106/mm3
Interpretation Decrease in RBC count may be due to the result of red cell loss by bleeding or hemolysis, failure of marrow production, or may be due to secondary dilution factors (intravenous fluids) Increase in RBC count may be the result of primary polycythemia including stress. RBC count is normally higher in individuals residing at high altitudes.
Test Method Manual haemocytometer chamber count.
Related Tests Complete Blood Count, Erythropoietin, Ferritin, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell Morphology, Red Blood Cell indices, Vitamin B12
Red Cell Mass/ Red Cell Volume
Test Red Cell Mass/ Red Cell Volume
Indication The test is used to determine red cell mass, support the diagnosis of polycythemia and monitor therapy with anti-neoplastic drugs.
Normal Range Male: 24-32 mL/kg; Female: 21-27 mL/kg
Interpretation Decreased red cell volume includes anemia, nutritional, hemolytic, production deficit, acute and/or chronic blood loss, acute blood loss, chronic disease , radiation, starvation, or severe edema Vs Increased red cell volume include Polycythemia vera, Secondary polycythemia, hypoxia, methemoglobinemia, carboxyhemoglobinemia, Erythropoietin producing tumors/cysts, Hereditary over production of erythropoietin, Stress polycythemia, due to decreased plasma volume, as in cases of severe dehydration, burns, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities with Addison’s or Cushing’s diseases.
Related Tests Blood volume, Erythropoietin, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin
Test Reticulocyte Count
Indication This test is used to evaluate erythropoietic activity; Increased in acute and chronic hemorrhage, hemolytic anemias; The Reticulocyte production index will decide if one is working with a hyper-proliferative or non-proliferative anemia, and thus, which tests should be subsequently ordered.
Normal Range Adults: 0.5% to 1.5%; Newborns: <7%; Normal values at birth: 2.5% to 6.5%>
Test Method Flow cytometery.
Related Tests Hematocrit Red cell survival, Heinz body, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Osmotic Fragility, Sickle Cell Tests
Schilling Test/ Vitamin B12 Absorption test.
Test Schilling Test/ Vitamin B12 Absorption test.
Indication In vivo test for pernicious anemia, vitamin B12 malabsorption, and integrity of distal small intestine; Use to assess Vitamin B12 absorption in the diagnosis of malabsorption due to the lack of intrinsic factor, a diagnostic adjunct in other defects of small intestinal absorption. Evaluate extent of Crohn’s disease in terminal ileum.
Normal Range 10% excretion in the urine of radioactive B12 indicates intact intrinsic factor function.
Test Method Invivo radio-labelled assay
Related Tests Folic Acid, Intrinsic Factor Antibody, Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity/Transferrin, Parietal Cell Antibody, Red Blood Cell Morphology, Red blood Cell Indices, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 Unsaturated Binding Capacity
Siderocyte Stain/ Hemosiderin Stain/ Iron stain/ Pappenheimer Body stain
Test Siderocyte Stain/ Hemosiderin Stain/ Iron stain/ Pappenheimer Body stain
Indication The test is used to identify sideroblastic anemias and hemolytic anemia. Semi-quantitation of marrow iron stores evaluation of iron reserve, assist in the diagnosis of iron deficiency and hemosiderosis.
Normal Range No siderocytes identified, In bone marrow stainable iron present.
Test Method Prussian blue reaction.
Related Tests Iron stain, Bone marrow.
Sugar Water Test Screen/ PNH Test Screen/ Sucrose Hemolysis Test
Test Sugar Water Test Screen/ PNH Test Screen/ Sucrose Hemolysis Test
Indication The screening test for suspected paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Confirm the test with Ham Test.
Normal Range If no hemolysis is present, the patient probably does not have PNH provided multiple recent transfusions have not reduced the proportion of abnormal cells.
Test Results If the sugar water test is positive, a subsequent Ham test is strongly recommended. A negative sugar water test rules out PNH in most instances, provided the proportion of patient cells has not been reduced by previous transfusion. It has been demonstrated that the most complement sensitive cells in PNH are younger RBCs and reticulocytes. Increased sensitivity can be obtained for the assays by separating young RBCs from old by centrifugation.
Related Tests Erythrocyte complement fixation Test,Ham Test
Tartarate Resistant Leukocyte Acid Phosphatase/ Acid phosphatase/ Leukocyte Acid Phosphatase.
Test Tartarate Resistant Leukocyte Acid Phosphatase/ Acid phosphatase/ Leukocyte Acid Phosphatase.
Indication This test is used to diagnose “hairy cell leukemia”/ “Leukemic reticuloendotheliosis”
Normal Range Most white cells of peripheral blood as well as platelets are acid phosphatase positive.
Test Method Naphthol AS-BI, fast garnet GBC, with and without L(+) tartaric acid.
Related Tests Leukocyte Cytochemistry, Lymph node biopsy
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase/ TdT/ Terminal Deoxyribonucleotidyl Transferase/ Terminal Transferase
Test Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase/ TdT/ Terminal Deoxyribonucleotidyl Transferase/ Terminal Transferase
Indication The test is used to classify certain leukemias and lymphomas, normally used to distinguish lymphoblastic from non-lymphoblastic leukemia, diagnose acute lymphoblast leukemia, lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia, and lymphoblastic lymphomas.
Normal Range Peripheral blood is negative for TdT-positive cells, bone marrow <1.8% TdT-positive cells.>
Interpretation TdT is increased in more than 90% of the cases of ALL of childhood. This is true for even pre-B cell as well as B-cells ALL. TdT positive blasts are prominent in some cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia relating to the development of an acute blast phase. TdT has been reported to assist in establishing the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TdT positive cases of blast phase CML correlate with a positive response to chemotherapy vincristine and prednisone.
Test Method ELISA, Indirect Immunofluorescence antibody,
Related Tests Bone marrow, Immuno-phenotypic Analysis of Tissues, Lymph node biopsy
Thorn Test/ Adrenal Function Eosinophil Count
Test Thorn Test/ Adrenal Function Eosinophil Count
Indication Eosinophil Count is performed before and 4 hours following an injection of ACTH as a test of adrenal cortical function.
Interpretation If adrenal cortical function is normal, the Eosinophil count will act as follows: The Eosinophil count before the injection will be about twice the value of the Eosinophil count after the injection. If the adrenal cortical function is decreased, Eosinophil count before the injection will be approximately the same as the Eosinophil count after the injection. When adrenal cortical function is decreased, it indicates hypoadrenalism (Addison’s disease).
Related Tests Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Cortisol, Cosyntropin Test, Eosinophil Count
Viscosity, Serum/ Serum Viscosity
Indication Test is used to evaluate hyperviscosity syndromes associated with monoclonal gammopathy syndromes – myeloma, macroglobulinemia & dysproteinemias, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hyper-fibrinogenemia.
Test Method Viscometer.
Related Tests Immuno-fixation Electrophoresis, Protein Electrophoresis
Viscosity/ Blood viscosity
Test Viscosity/ Blood viscosity
Indication Detect hyper-viscosity states in neonatal period
Test Method Micro-viscometer method
Related Tests Erythropoietin
Vitamin B12/ Anti-pernicious anemia factor/ Cyanocobalamin
Test Vitamin B12/ Anti-pernicious anemia factor/ Cyanocobalamin
Indication The test is used to detect Vitamin B12 deficiency as in pernicious anemia in those patients who have hematologic symptoms – weakness, anemia, hyper-segmented neutrophils, leucopenia, or Neurologic – numbness, tingling, loss of vibratory sensation.
Normal Range 100-250 pg/mL (74-185 pmol/L)
Interpretation Vitamin B12 is low in hypochlorhydria, pernicious anemia, intestinal absorption, inflammatory bowel disease, bacterial infection. Diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm, intestinal surgery, oral contraceptives, increase in red blood cell volume. Vitamin B12 is increased in chronic granulocytic leukemia, chronic renal failure, severe congestive heart failure, diabetes, obesity and liver cell damage.
Test Method Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Related Tests Complete Blood Count, Folic Acid, Hemoglobin, Intrinsic Factor Antibody, Red Blood Cell Indices, Schilling Test
White Blood Count/ Leukocyte Count/ Total WBC/ White Count
Test White Blood Count/ Leukocyte Count/ Total WBC/ White Count
Indication Used to evaluate White cell enumeration, evaluate myelopoiesis, bacterial and viral infections, toxic metabolic processes, diagnose leukemia stages.
Physiology WBC counts from actively crying babies may show leukocytosis and may suggest bacterial infections.
Normal Range Peripheral blood: 4500-11,000/mm3 (4.5-11 X 109/L)
Possible Panic Range: < 2500/mm3 (2.5X109/L) or > 30000/mm3 (>30.0X109/L).
Test Method Haemocytometer counting chamber
Related Tests Anti-neutrophil Antibody, Chromosome Analysis, Complete Blood Count, Total WBC Count
Zeta Sedimentation Ratio/ Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate/ ZSR
Test Zeta Sedimentation Ratio/ Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate/ ZSR
Indication The test is a Non-specific indicator of infectious disease and inflammatory states, reflects acute phase resistant levels, screen for collagen disease, rheumatoid arthritis
Interpretation Increased in infection, inflammation, tissue necrosis, macroglobulins are increased. Decreased in – Sickle cell disease and spherocytosis. The tests ESR, ZSR, and/or CRP are used in the differentiation of anemia from iron deficiency.
Related Tests Burn culture, C – reactive protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.