The prostate is the richest source of this enzyme
Indication: cancer of the prostate, bone disease
Normal Range: Male-2.5-11.7U/L,
Interpretation: Elevated levels are seen in cancer of the bone and prostrate
Under the conditions of stress ACTH produced by the pituitary gland stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Both cortisol and ACTH levels are to be determined. Hydrocortisone is the major steroid hormone synthesised.
Indication: Adrenal and pituitary gland disorders
Normal Range: ACTH – Morning-25-50pg/ml, evening-0-50pg/ml
Interpretation Increased levels indicate cushings syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia, hypertension, weight gain, impotency and physiological disorders Dexamethasone suppression indicate Addisons disease characterized by low blood pressure, hypoglycemia and depression
It is a mostly liver enzyme, formerly known as serum glutamate oxaloactetate transaminase.
Indication: It is present in red blood cells, heart and liver. Formerly known as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase.
Normal Range: 0-35U/L
Interpretation: Hepatitis, cirrhosis, ischemia, tumor of liver, ischemia interoperates high levels of enzyme. Higher levels also indicate viral hepatitis.
It is present in all tissues especially in bile ducts, placenta, liver and bone
Indication: Elevated in conditions of hepatitis and acute liver damage
Normal Range: 44-77IU/l
Interpretation: Higher values indicate biliary obstruction, hepatitis, anemia and fracture.
It is a glycoprotein also known as alpha 1-antitrypsin. It serves as inhibitor of several protien cleaving enzymes like elastase, trypsin and chymotrypisn. It is synthesised in the liver.
Indication: Pulmonary emphysema liver cirrhosis
Normal Range: 150-250mg/100ml
Interpretation: Decreased levels may be taken for liver damage and jaundice.
Ammonia arises from the hydrolysis of amino acid glutamine in kidney
Indication: Impaired buffering action of kidney
Normal Range: 30-50millimoles/day
Interpretation: Increased levels indicate diabetic ketoacidosis and starvation. Decreased levels indicate carbohydrate rich diet
This enzyme digests starch and is present in pancreas and salivary glands
Indication Acute pancreatitis
Normal Range: Male-60-180Su/Dl,
Interpretation: Elevated levels are seen after the pancreatitis, conditions of salivary gland damages like mumps and swelling of parotid glands
Ascorbic acid test
It plays an important role in connective tissue formation.
Interpretation: Deficiency is characterized by inability to form intercellular substances in tissues leading to swollen and tender joints.
Indication: Elevated in conditions of cirrhosis, hepatitis, and jaundice.
Normal Range: 17-59U/L
Interpretation: High levels – Liver damage, hepatitis, necrosis, kidney or lung changes.
Low levels – Vitamin B6 deficiency. AST to ALT ratio is directly proportional to alcohol dependence.
It plays an important role in carboxylation reactions
Normal Range: 200-350pgs/Ml
Interpretation: Deficiency leads to anorexia, nausea, vomiting, depression and glossitis.
Blood urea nitrogen
It is the catabolic product of proteins and the excess is execrated in kidneys.
Indication: Kidney damage
Normal Range: 7-25mgs/dl
Interpretation: Increased levels indicate heart and kidney damage. Decreased levels indicate mal absorption and low protein intake
Vitamin-A plays an important role in vision, growth and reproduction.
Indication: Vision impairment
Normal Range: 0.91-1.71micrograms/dL
Interpretation: Deficiency leads to keratomalacia characterized by degenerative changes in retina leading to blindness, dry skin and roughness increased levels leads to nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and hepatomegaly.
Catecholamines in urine
This is secreted by adrenal medulla and in case of tumors it secretes more. 24 hours urine sample is required.
Indication: Hypertension, hyperglycemia, weight loss, glycosuria.
Normal Range: 50micrograms in 24 hours urine sample
Interpretation: Elevated levels are seen in pheochromocytoma characterized by cancer of adrenal medullary glands. Increased levels also indicate functional paraganglioma characterized by cancer of symphatetic paragnalian cells.
Indication: Liver and eye degenerations
Normal Range: 0.2-0.55 absorbance units/0.1ml serum
Interpretation: Increased levels indicate degeneration of eye, accumulation in liver and neurological disorders.
Indication: Cushing syndrome, chronic nephritis, Addison disease
Normal Range: Normal values-170-250millimoles of chloride
Interpretation: Lower levels indicates vomiting and diarrhoea. Decreased activity of tubular reabsorption
Test: Creatinine kinase
Indication: Myocardial infarction,skeletal muscle disorders
Normal Range: Male-15-160U/L,female-15-130U/L
Interpretation: Higher values are due to myocardial breakdown and central nervous system shock
Test: Folic acid
Physiology It plays an important role in nucleic acid and aminoacid biosyntheis
Normal Range 3-20nanograms/Ml
Interpretation Deficiency is due to poor absorption and insufficient dietary intake.
Follicle stimulating hormone test
Test Follicle stimulating hormone test
Indication Reproductive organ disorders
Normal Range Male 4-25U/L, female 4-30U/L
Interpretation Higher values indicate hypopitutarism,genetic disorders like Turner and Knilfielters syndrome.Low levels indicate disorders of pituatiry and hypothalamus
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
Test Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
Indication Elevated in biliary obstruction, rickets, osteomalacia, osteosarcoms diseases.
Physiology It is found in blood stream and is especially of hepatic origin
Normal Range 0-51IU/l
Interpretation Higher values indicate bile duct obstruction cancer and necrosis of liver.
Test Glycosylated haemoglobin
Indication persistence of hyperglycemia
4-hydroxy3-methoxymandelic acid in urine
Test 4-hydroxy3-methoxymandelic acid in urine
Normal Range Daily excreation-2-6mgs/day.
Interpretation Increased levels are seen in pheochromocytoma. Decreased levels are due to consumption of lipid lowering drugs.
5-Hydroxyindole 3-acetic acid in urine
Test 5-Hydroxyindole 3-acetic acid in urine
Indication Gastrointestinal tract tumors
Normal Range Daily excreation-2-9mgs/day.
Interpretation Increased levels are seen in carcinoid syndrome characterised by cancer of digestive tract.
Indication Presence of red blood cells in urine
Interpretation An increase of RBC”s in urine indicates hemoglobinuria, Internal burns, poisoning and improper blood transfusion
High density lipoproteins
Test High density lipoproteins
Indication Chronic heart disease
Normal Range 35-135mgs/dl
Interpretation Lower levels indicate risks of heart disease
Iron and iron binding capacity in serum
Test Iron and iron binding capacity in serum
Indication Anemia and polycythemia
Normal Range Iron-70-180micrograms/100ml. Iron binding capacity – 250-430 micrograms/100 ml.
Interpretation Lower values indicate pernicious anemia
Test Lactate dehydrogenase
Indication To diagonise heart atttack, anemia, liver disease, tissue changes.
Normal Range 45-90U/L.
Interpretation High values may be due to myocardial infarction, infectious mononucleosis, cell damage, trauma, muscle injury.
Indication Acute pancreatitis
Low density lipoproteins
Test Low density lipoproteins
Physiology It is a lipid transport vehicle
Normal Range 62-130mgs/dl
Interpretation Heart disease
Physiology It plays an important role in metabolic reactions.
Normal Range 2.4-6.1mgs/Dl
Interpretation Deficiency leads to dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, psychosis and carcinoid syndrome.
5 prime nucleotidase
Test 5 prime nucleotidase
Indication Bile duct obstruction
Normal Range 0-15U/L
Interpretation Increased level indicates liver and bone disease
Indication Proteinuria, preeclampsia, glomerularnephritis and diabetic nephropathy
Normal Range Mild proteinurial – less than 0.5 g/day, moderate proteinuria-0.5-3.0g/day. Marked proteinuria-3-15g/day
Interpretation Mild proteinuria – stress and fever. Moderate proteinuria – congestive heart failure and multiple myeloma. Marked proteinuria – glomerularnephritis, diabetic nephropathy
Prothrombin time tests
Test Prothrombin time tests
Indication Blood clotting disorders
Normal Range 11-15seconds
Interpretation A prolonged prothrombin time indicates deficiency of vitamin k due to liver disease, deficiency of factors V, X, XII, fibronogen and thrombin
Test Schilling test
Indication Perinicious anemia. Neurological disorders
Normal Range 250-835pgs/mL
Interpretation Deficiency leads to loss of sensation, weakness, paralysis.
Test serum calcium
Indication Hyperparathyroidism, rickets, osteomalacia, hypervitaminosis, nephrosis, pancreatitis, tetany.
Normal Range 12-20mgs/100ml
Interpretation Higher levels are seen in hyperparathyrodism and hypervitaminosis and defective kidney function to excrete decreased levels are seen in rickets and osteomalacia.
Sex hormone test
Test Sex hormone test
Indication Menstural problems, fertility problems, pregnancy delayed problems
Normal Range Estrogen-24-149pg/ml, testosterone-300-1200ng/dL, progesterone-menopausal women-150ng/Dl-2000ng/dL, Premenopausal-1500-2000ng/dL
Interpretation Increased levels of estrogen indicate early onset of puberty, male having female characters. Low levels of estrogen indicates pregnancy failure. Increased levels of progesterone indicates cancer of ovary and cysts formation in ovary. Decreased levels are found in abortion. Higher levels of testosterone are seen in tumor of testes and encephilitis. decreased levels are seen in genetical disorders like Down and Knilfilter syndrome
Thyroid function test
Test Thyroid function test
Indication Hyperparathyroidism and hypothyroidism
Normal Range T4-60-140nmol/L, T3-1.2-1.8nmol/L, TSH-0.1-6IU/L
Interpretation Total T4-Increased levels are seen in graves disease, cancer of thyroid as symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Low levels are seen in hypothyroidism whose symptoms are myoxyedema hashmito disease and pituatry disorders. T 3 -Increased levels are seen in hyperthyroidism and decreased levels are seen in hypothyroidsm. TSH-High in hypothyroidism and low in hyperthyroidism
Test Total acidity
Normal Range Free acidity-0-30 clinical units/100ml,Total acidity-20-50 units/100ml
Interpretation Lower secreations indicate achlorhydria characterised by low secreation of HCl, if pepsin levels are also low then it is known as achyllia gastrica. Anemia, gastritis and carcinoma also lowers the secreation level.Higher values indicate hyperchlorhydria characterised by gastric ulcer and duedonal ulcer.
Test Total bilirubin
Indication Cholecystitis, jaundice, cirrohosis, hemolytic anemia.
Normal Range Total bilirubin-0.3-1.0mgs/dl. Direct bilirubin-0.1-0.3mgs/dl. Indirect bilirubin-0.2-0.7mgs/dl
Interpretation Increased levels are seen in conditions of damaged gall bladder due to gall stones, where there is a maximum reabsorption of bilirubin, excessive breakdown of red blood cells, use of more of medications such as antibiotics.
Physiology Nearly 95% of dietary fat are stored as triglycerides and it is stored in adipose tissue
Normal Range 0-200mgs/dl
Interpretation Increased levels indicate myocardial infarction, liver disease. Decreased levels indicate poor nutrition and poor absorption
Indication Glomerular nephritis, acute and chronic renal failure, urinary tract obstruction
Urine analysis physical characteristics
Test Urine analysis physical characteristics
Indication Polyuria, oliguria, anuria, acute nephritis, colour of urine is smoky brown yellow, milky diabetes insipidus
Interpretation An increase in urinary out indicates polyuria characterised by diabetes. A low output symbolises oliguria due to nephritis,fever and vomitting and anuria is due to poisoning by heavy metals. Pus, bilirubin and blood output changes the color of urine
Vitamin – B2
Test Vitamin – B2
Indication Dermatitis photophobia
Normal Range 4-24micrograms/Dl.
Interpretation Deficiency leads to sore throat edema, hyperemia and glossitis. Other symptoms include seborrhic dermatitis and normocytic anemia.
Test Vitamin-B 6
Indication Dermatitis hypochromic anemia
Normal Range 5-30nanograms/Ml
Interpretation Deficiency leads to epileptiform convulsions and hematological manifestations.
Indication Beri beri
Normal Range 150-200U/L
Interpretation Deficiency may be due to chronic alkalosis megaloblastic anemia
Test Vitamin-D test
Indication Bone disorders
Normal Range 16-65pgs/mL.
Interpretation Deficiency leads to Rickets in children and osteolmalacia in adults. Increased levels are due to renal failure, hyperparathyroidism.
Normal Range 12-42micromoles/L
Interpretation Deficiency leads to edema, hemolytic anemia.
Indication Impaired blood clotting
Physiology Il promoted blood clotting.
Normal Range 0.8-.64mgs/L.
Interpretation Deficiency leads to hemolytic disease