Renal calculus is one of the most common diseases of urinary system. We Homoeopath frequently meet such patients for Homoeopathic care. Fortunately we can do a lot for renal calculi. I therefore select the subject renal calculus for your reading.
Renal calculus is mainly affecting the males than the females, especially in the third and fourth decades of life. In children it is less common. Etiology of renal calculus is exactly not known, but some factors provoke the formation of the same, such as infections in the urinary tract, high concentration of urine in hot climate or working in hot environment, or from excessive sweating due to over work, vitamin ‘A’ deficiency, hyper parathyroidism, prolonged immobility, altered urinary solute and colloids (in hot climates the concentration of solutes will rise), decreased urinary output of citrate, are the main factors. Deficiency of vitamin B6 and magnesium, chronic use of calcium antacids, high intake of animal protein diet, sedentary life style, certain kidney diseases, and gout are the other causes. Hereditary may play a major role. Hard water intakes, increased intake of high calcium foods like milk; cheese, etc are also causes the formation of calcium oxalate stones.
types of stones
The stones are classified into Primary, Secondary and mixed.
Primary stones are formed in healthy urinary tract- usually uric acid, oxalate or urate stones.
Secondary stones are formed in diseased or inflamed urinary tract- usually phosphate stones.
The various types of renal calculi are:
Calcium oxalate stone: Commonest type. Usually the calcium oxalate stones are very hard.
There are four types of calcium oxalate stones are there. (a) Small, smooth, shining stones. They are usually reddish gray in colour and spherical in shape. Usually they are multiple. (b)
Stone with sharp projections from its central core. It is other wise called as mulberry stones and it cause the kidney to bleed. (c) Stag horn type (d) Small stone with sharp glistening surface. These are usually light brown in colour.
Phosphate stones (usually calcium phosphate): They are smooth and dirty white in colour. It becomes enlarged very rapidly in alkaline urine. Some time it fills the renal calyces and taking on their shape (stag horn calculus).
Uric acid and urate calculi. Usually they are multiple, and are hard and smooth. Its colour varies from yellow to reddish brown.
Cystine stones, usually seen in patients with cystinuria. These stones are usually multiple, and are soft, like beeswax. The stones are pink or yellow in colour.
Xanthine stones: They are smooth and round and brick red in colour. These types are extremely rare
Aching or colicky pain in lumbar region.
Renal pain located in the renal angle on the back and hypochondriac region in the abdomen. Pain usually aggravated on movement, especially on ascending stairs. In the ureteric colic there is sudden colicky, agonizing pain passing from loin to groin, it will cause to compel the patient to draw up his knees and roll about. Vomiting and profuse sweating are often accompanied with the pain. The pain is often due to the entering of a stone into the ureter; sometime it may cause temporary block in the pelviureteric junction. Blood in the urine. It always proceeded by renal pain.
Frequency of maturation and strangury. Some time there is haematuria present.
Pus may be found in the urine.
Restlessness, nausea with or without vomiting may present.
The diagnosis is made by the clinical symptoms; Urine analysis, plain X-ray, I.V.P., and Ultra sound scan, CT Scan, Blood-renal function parameters (Urea, Creatinine, Calcium, Phosphorus, Uric acid) are also helpful.
Infection (pyelonephritis, pyonephritis), Hydronephrosis, Interstitial nephritis, atrophy of the kidney, calculus anuria.
Biliary colic, acute appendicitis, acute intestinal obstruction.
For the treatment the patient follows some rules to prevent the renal colic and expulsion of the stones.
The patient must take large amount of water with out the consideration of the type of stones.
It is very important to keep the urine dilute. For this take plenty of water with out the consideration of day or night. During hot humid weather with excessive sweating, extra fluid must be taken. Before going to bed take two to three glasses of water, it will causes to void urine during night, again take additional glass of water after each voiding of urine. Never hold urine for long time, when you feel an urge, don’t retain, immediately void. A manual worker to compensate their fluid loss through perspiration while work in hot climate should drink more fluid.
Avoid high calcium content diets like milk, cheese, etc.
In Uric acid and urates stones avoid red meats, offal, and fish (which contain high purine).
In calcium oxalate stones avoid rhubarb, strawberries, plums, spinach, and asparagus (which contain rich oxalate).
In cystine calculi avoid eggs, meat or fish.
Vegetarian diet is very suitable. If possible please avoid the following food items.
Vegetables like spinach, cabbage, carrot, tomato, qualiflower, curry leaves, drumstick leaves, and plantain fruit. Fruits like orange, mango, gooseberry, and papaya. Meats like beef, chicken, and pork. Nuts like cashew nut, badham, and coco. Fish like scabbard fish, sardine fish, prawn, shark, crab, shell-meat, and dried fish. Milk, cheese, chocolate.
Oxalate rich foods:
Beef, Chickoo, Chocolate, cocoa, Custured apple, Spinach, Strawberries, Tea, Tomato
Uric acid rich foods:
Fish herring, Fish roe, Salmon, Sardine, Kidney, Liver, Meat extract, Soups, Sweat bread, Cheese, Brinjal.
Calcium rich foods:
Beans, Cauliflower, Egg yolk, Milk, Milk products, Molasses, Potatoes, Cheese.
Apis.mel. Hydronephrosis < left side.
Cystitis-stricture, strangury, burning and stinging pain while urinating. Last drop of urine burn and smart.
Urine loaded with casts.
Urine, scanty and high coloured, brick-dust sediment.
Apocynum. Bladder calculus.
Urine scanty, dribbling. Turbid, hot urine, with thick mucous and burning in urethra, after urinating.
Arnica. Renal colic.
Agonizing, piercing pains in back and hips, as if knives were plunged into renal region.
Violent tenesmus, retention of urine, frequency, has to wait long for urine to pass. Urine dark brown, brick red. Specific gravity of the urine is increased. Haematuria. Usually 10M potency is helpful for immediate action.
Ars.alb Bladder calculi.
Albuminuria. Calcium oxalate deposits.
Frequent passage of stones, with dull pain extending to ureter.
Tickling and itching in the urethra.
Hydronephrosis due to impaction of stone in ureter.
Dark yellow urine with pus, blood and albumin, epithelial cells, and cylindrical clot of fibrin. Calcium oxalate sediments.
Asparagus Bladder calculi.
Frequent urination with fine stitches in the urethra.
Belladonna Renal colic during passage of calculi.
Spasmodic, stinging, shooting, burning pains from kidney to bladder.
Retention of urine. Acute urinary infections. Urine scanty with tenesmus.
Urine dark and turbid, loaded with phosphates.
Berberis vulg Renal colic-Head remedy.
Renal calculus and colic, especially left side.
Pain in the thighs and loins on urinating. Frequent urination. Urethra burns when not urinating.
Tearing, cutting and stitching pain in the loin extending down to the bladder
Urethra, and radiating into various directions.
Cutting, burning, sticking and most excruciating pain bladder and urethra, extending to the testicle of the affected side.
Urine dark, bright yellow or bright red blood colour. Mother tincture and 3X potencies are most useful.
Brachyglottis Oxalate and phosphate stones. Pain in the bladder and urethra after urination.
Urine contains mucous corpuscles and epithelium, albumin and casts.
Coccus cacti Calculi in the ureter or urethra.
Urinary calculi, haematuria, urates, and uric acid.
Lancinating pains from kidney to bladder.
Dark coloured urine.
Hydrangia Ureteric calculi.
Burning in urethra and frequent desire.
Sharp pain in loin, especially left.
Profuse deposit of white amorphous salts.
Lycopodium Calcium oxalate stones.
Renal colic right side. Pain extending down ureter to bladder, with frequent urging to urinate.
Non-eliminative calculi with periodical discharge of small round and rough stones.
Pain in the back before urinating .
Millifolium Bladder calculi left side. Pain in the left kidney with haematuria.
Cutting pain in the bladder, down to the penis.
Nat.phos Oxaluria. Keep calcium oxalate in suspension.
Use low potencies.
Nux.vom Pain especially in the right kidney, extending to the genital and right legs.
Nausea and vomiting.
Constant urging to urinate.
Inability lie on the right side.
Better while lying on the back, aggravated by rising and walking.
Ocimum can Renal colic-right side.
Pain in ureters.
Violent vomiting every few minutes.
Red sand in the urine. Formation of spike crystals of uric acid.
Turbid, thick, purulent, bloody; brick-dust red or yellow sediment.
Opium Renal colic.
Squeezing pain, as though something has to force its way through a narrow passage.
Shooting pains from different places into the bladder and testicle.
Pareira brava Bladder calculus.
Renal colic left, excruciating pain in left lumbar region, radiating from kidney along ureter to groin.
Constant urging; great straining; pain down thighs during efforts to urinate.
Uric acid crystals pass.
Urination difficult can pass urine only when on his knees.
Urine black, thick, bloody; forming with brick dust sediment of uric acid, strong ammonacal smell.
Sarsaparilla Calculi, kidney and bladder, passage of small calculi.
Pain from right kidney downward.
Painful retention of urine; dribbles while sitting and passes freely on standing.
Severe pain at conclusion of urination.
Urine scanty, slimy, flaky, sandy, bloody.
Tabacum Renal calculi, left side.
Renal colic, violent throbbing pain along ureters in small of back and loins, retching with cold sweats; violent deathly nausea and vomiting.
Terebinth Calcium oxalate stones.
Strangury, with bloody urine.
1M or higher potencies, to prevent and dissolve calculi.
Uvaursi Bladder calculus. Accelerate the passage of stones.
Constant urging, with severe spasm of bladder; burning and severe pain.
Urine contains blood, pus and much tenacious mucous, with clots in large masses.
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