Drug action = action on à living human being & à reaction à vital force.
Drug action is the sum total of the action conveyed on an individual living human being and the sum-total of the reaction that it can induce in the vital force of the same
Drug action depends upon:
The dose &
The general receptive capacity of the body mechanism
Principle of Drug Action
Drug may stimulate or depress the function (while the repair process of nature at work.)
Drugs may replace the secretion absent or present in insufficient quantity.
Drugs may alternate or kill invading organisms (e.g. Bacteria, virus or fungus), thus effecting the process of cure.
Types of Drug Action
In Homoeopathy the way of drug action has not yet been explored fully.
By the process of attenuation the internal dynamic, spiritual power with its pharmacologic message is liberated from the material bonds and it acts upon the dynamicity of the living cell of the human organism.
From the homoeopathic point of view the drug action could not be grouped in certain division. Yet conventionally the following group has been made.
- 1. Corrosive Group
(A) Mineral Acids (e.g. Nit acid, Sulp.acid, etc,)
(B) Organic Acids (e.g. Acetic acid, oxalic acid, etc)
- 2. Irritant Group
(A) Metallic (e.g. Ammonium, Arsenic, Copper, Lead etc.)
(B) Non-Metals (e.g. Phosphorus, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine)
3. Vegetable Group (e.g. Aloes, Capsicum, Colocynth, etc)
4. Cardiac Group (e.g. Aconite, etc)
5. Spinal Group (e.g. Nux vom, etc)
6. Deliriant Group (e.g. Cannabis sativa. etc)
7. Neurotic Group (e.g. Opium, etc)
8. Ophidia Group (e.g. Lachesis, Crotalus, Naja, etc.)
ACONITUM NAPELLUS (Wolf’s – bane)
CN: Aconite, Monkshood, Wolf’s bean.
MT prepared from the entire plant except the root.
This agent is an
Antipyretic (an agent that reduces fever),
Diaphoretic (an agent that promotes profuse perspiration) and
Diuretic (an agent that promote urine secretion).
Local application stimulates the ends of sensory nerves, producing tingling, soon followed by depression with numbness and anesthesia.
When taken internally it produce tingling and numbness of the lips and mouth, and an increased secretion from the salivary glands.
While from large doses causes:
Constriction about the fauces, with pain in the epigastric region, nausea and vomiting.
Heart action at first slowed, later it become rapid and weak.
Respiratory centers depressed and as a result respiration becomes slow and shallow.
Produce an anxious expression of the face.
Skin is pale, cold, and covered with perspiration.
Ind: Early staged of Rheumatic fever, Acute inflammatory diseases of eyes, glossitis, ottalgia with stinging pain, coryza following sudden change of weather, peritonitis and enteritis, diarrhea , acute UTI, first stage gonorrhoea, laryngitis, measles, early stage of rheumatic arthritis.
CN: Pheasant’s eye, False hellebore.
Habitat: Europe and Asia.
It contains Adonidin and Adonitic acid.
MT is prepared from the entire fresh plant.
This agent is a cardiac and arterial stimulant, and a diuretic.
By its direction upon the heart it increases its rate, force, and the blood pressure.
It diminishes the frequency of the pulse and increase the force of the cardiac contraction; cyanosis gradually disappears, while dyspnoea is less marked. No cumulative effects were ever noticed.
Ind: Hydrothorax, ascitis, mitral and aortic regurgitation, chronic aortitis, rheumatic endocarditis, pericarditis.
Habitats: found in all parts of world.
MT is prepared from the fresh, red bulb,
This agent is acts upon:
The conjunctiva, causing bland lachrymation.
The mucous membrane of the nose, giving rise to an acrid coryza.
The larynx and trachea, producing a catarrhal condition.
Ind: Acute coryza, hay-fever, cough.
Syn: Argenti Nitras, Silver Nitrate.
This is a colorless, transparent salt occurring in tubular, rhombic crystals. The salt and solution of it turn black on exposure to light when organic matter is present
This agent when applied locally is a caustic (an agent that cause burning or corrosive; destructive to living tissues); but superficially in its action.
It produces a dark discoloration, due to its union with albumin and fibrin.
Upon the mucous membrane of the stomach it produces a condition of atony (lack of normal tone or strength) with great flatulence.
When poisonous dose is taken it produces vomiting, purging, spasms of the abdominal, muscles, convulsions, delirium, a lowering of the heart action, failure of the respirations and death.
The kidney, liver and all glandular tissues show degeneration; especially those of fatty character.
The cartilages of the body show destructive inflammatory changes.
The haemoglobin is diminished, and as a result there is defective oxidation and anaemia.
The temperature is lowered.
In connection with nervous system there is Headache attended with mental depression, vertigo, restless sleep, spinal weakness, pain in the small of the back, and debility of the extremities that approached paresis (slight or incomplete paralysis).
Ind: Ophthalmia neonatorum, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, chronic laryngitis, gastric ulcer, cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes insipidus, nepharalgia, epilepsy.
Syn: Arsenious acid, Arsenic, Arsenious oxide.
It occurs as a white powder or in white opaque or vitreous lumps and is odorless and tasteless.
This agent when applied to the skin acts as a caustic (an agent that cause burning or corrosive; destructive to living tissues), and produces a violent inflammation with sloughing (necrotic tissue in the process of separating from viable portions of the body) of the parts.
When small doses are taken, stimulating the flow of saliva and gastric and circulation, stimulating the flow of saliva, and gastric and intestinal and nutritive functions.
Toxic doses produce:
Violent gastroenteritis with nausea, diarrhea, and a sense of heat and dryness in the stomach.
The heart rendered irritable and feeble, and fatty degeneration of the myocardium results.
The red blood corpuscles are decreased in number, and the blood rendered less coagulable.
The urine becomes scanty, albuminous, and bloody.
The skin shows oedema which extends and becomes a general anasarca (generalized massive oedema) if the drug is continued. This is at times followed by eczema urticaria, herpes zoster, bronzing and exfoliating of the skin; the hair and nail may fall.
The nervous system shows disorders of motility and sensibility, tremors and multiple neuritis.
It also acts as a respiratory depressant.
Toxic doses increase the bodily temperature, though the extremities are cold. It is eliminated by the intestine, kidney, liver and skin.
Ind: Periodical headache, winter colds, diphtheria, acute gastritis, peritonitis, cholera, typhoid, myocarditis, pericarditis following measles, nephritis.
Syb: Atropa, Belladonna, Deadly nightshade.
Alkaloids: Atropine & Belladonine.
MT prepared from entire fresh plant.
This agent when applied locally, diminishes the sensibility of the sensory nerves, and when absorbed it produce systemic effects.
Taken internally, it lessens the secretions, and as a result there is dryness of the mucous surfaces. This is brought about by paralysis of the peripheral nerve endings. At first the pulse is retarded, but it is quickly accelerated and rendered firmer, while the arterial tension is increase. The heart muscle is stimulated but if it is over-stimulated it then becomes weak.
Full doses stimulate the brain and may produce hallucinations and a delirium, which may be mild, joyful, talkative, or of a violent type; accompanying these there are frequently spectral illusions. The reflexes at first are slightly stimulated, while later they are diminished. There may be complete motor paralysis. The sensory nerves are depressed, especially from a local application of the drug.
The respirations are quickened and rendered deeper by medicinal doses.
Poisonous doses, by over-stimulating, soon result in exhaustion and paralysis of the respiratory centers, and the breathing becomes shallow and asphyxia and death may result. The bodily heat is increased. It dilates the pupil and increase intra-ocular tension, occasional vertigo and turgescence of the face. Assimilation is impaired. It is rapidly absorbed and is eliminated by the kidneys and bowels.
Ind: Acute pharyngitis, Acute laryngitis, Mastitis, Acute conjunvtivitis, Exophthalmic goitre, air sickness in aviators, Vertigo, Headache, Otitis media, Gum boil, Acute UTI, Stiff neck.
Syn: Cereus grandiflorus, Night-blooming Cereus.
MT is made from the fresh young stems and flowers.
While this agent has a pronounced action on the whole organism, its principal action is on the heart and circulation. It produces general rigors which are followed by violent congestions, heat and sweats. These return daily. It produces sadness, apprehension, fear of death and a tendency to be frightened. There are severe constrictive pains about the heart, with palpitation of the heart, oppressed breathing, constriction about the chest, pains and constriction in the region of the diaphragm, pain and numbness of the left arm. There are acid eructation, severe twisting colic, with heat in the abdomen, with bilious diarrhea and pain before the stool. The menstruation is painful, is attended with great prostration and profound melancholia. There is weakness and coldness of the extremities with numbness of the left arm and swelling of the left hand.
It relives congestion and removes irritation similar to Aconite, but does not weaken the nervous system as Aconite does.
Ind: Dysmenorrhoea, Angina pectoris, Endocarditis with mitral insufficiency, Hypotenssion.
Synonyms: Indian hemp.
Habitat: Persia and Northern India.
MT: is prepared from the dry herb tops.
This agent is a vaso-motor and cerebro-spinal stimulant, increasing the arterial tension, the intellectual and motor activity. It depresses sensation, and while it has not the power of starting uterine contraction, and while it has not the power of uterine contraction, it does not increase the energy of the uterine fiber. Physiological doses give rise to a form of intoxication, during which the ideas come so rapidly that the victim believes that time is passing slowly and minutes appear to be hours or days, short distance appearing to be a long way. He has a sensation of a double consciousness. Sight and hearing are more acute, the pupils dilated. Later anaesthesia appears, the reflexes are lowered, and sleep and coma are present in proportion to the dose. Its after effects are headache, vertigo, dullness, forgetfulness and mental diuresis. Death has never been observed fro it, but over stimulation produces impotence and mental weakness.
Ind:Headache, Migrain, Grinding of teeth in sleep, Sterility (Sep),.
MT: Prepared from fresh blooming herb-tops.
This agent is quiet similar to the Cannabis Indica in many particulars. It contains a greater amount of potassium nitrate that does the latter and this has a more positive action upon the urinary organs. The Cannabis Indica contains a greater amount of the hashish which produces greater mental disturbances. It produces more smarting and burning in the urethra than does Cantharis but less tenesmus.
It acts upon the mucous membrane of the urinary tract producing irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane, very similar to that of specific urethritis.
Ind: Amenorrhoea, Catract, Urithritis, Gonorrhoea, Cystitis.
Syn: Spanish Fly.
MT: Prepared from carefully selected insects.
This agent when applied to the skin produce a burning pain, hyperaemia, vesicles which trend to coalesce, and if the action in continued will terminate in sloughing and ulceration. When applied to the chest, the lung beneath become pale and anaemic, while if it is long, continued the pleura will show inflammatory changes. If it is applied to the abdomen for a prolonged period peritonitis will result. When taken internally it has power of causing irritation of the stomach, gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting and purging. It passes into the blood and is excreted by the kidneys, producing congestion of the kidneys and irritation of the bladder. The urine may be suppressed or voided frequently, when it is apt to contain albumen and at times blood. There is pain and aching in the renal region. The autopsy in fatal cases shows inflammatory changes in the intestinal tract with hyperaemia of the kidneys and bladder
Ind: Acute UTI, Retained placenta (Sep), Expels dead foetus, membranes etc. Nymphomania, Burns, Gonorrhoea, Elephantiasis, Eczema.
Syonyms: China officinalis, Calisaya bark, Peruvian bark.
Habitat: South America.
Alkaloids: Many alkaloids found among them Quinine, and Cinchonine.
MT: Prepared from dried bark.
The action of this agent has so many features in common with its alkaloid Chininum sulphuricusm that its physiological action considered under that heading.
Chininum sulphuricum externally and locally is an antiseptic, preventing putrefaction and fermentation by its power of destroying fungi and infusoria in solution of from 1/250 to 1/1000, dependent upon organism, according to Binz when given in the proportion of 1 part to 20,000 of blood, the white cells in the vessels ceases to migrate, small doses 2 to 3 grains increase the phagocytic power of the blood, while larger doses, more that four grains circulating in the blood, decrease this power; medicinal doses increase the number of red blood corpuscles, while toxic dose inhibit the oxygen bearing powers of the red corpuscles. Small doses increase the force and frequency of the heart’s action, while larger doses slow and weaken it, and in children often cause an intermittent pulse; small doses elevate, while large doses depress cardiac action.
Taken internally it has a bitter taste in a proportion of 1 to 10, 000; under small doses the appetite and digestion are improved. The secretions from the salivary and gastro-intestinal glands are increased, peristalsis is stimulated and blood supply to the stomach is increased. Large doses disturb the digestion; cause nausea with possible vomiting and diarrhea. It is absorbed from the stomach not from the intestines. Its presence may be detected in the urine fifteen minutes after the ingestion of a full dose, but it is many hours or even days before it is finally excreted. Fully 90 per cent can be recovered in the urine. Small doses stimulate the cerebrum, while large doses occasion cerebral congestion, a sensation of dizziness, fullness in the head and unconsciousness. Small doses depress the respiratory movements and death may be due to respiratory paralysis. This may be accompanied by paralysis of the heart and vagus.
It is a powerful antipyretic in malarial fever, but has little influence on the temperature in health. Excessive doses and long continued use produce a group of symptoms known as ‘cinchonis’, in which there is a sensation of fullness in the head, ringing or buzzing in the ears with a varying degree of deafness, headache, disturbance of the vision, vertigo, muscular weakness, at times delirium, enlarged spleen, a disposition to shiver, great debility, a periodicity which is well marked and frequently haematuria, while there are no indications that it is an abortifacient, it does appear to stimulate the uterine contractions after the inception of labour.
Ind: Intermittent fever, Anaemia, Flatulence, Diarrhoea, Rheumatic and neuralgic pains, Insomnia, Gall stones, Post operative gas pain, Hiccough.
MT: Prepared from un-roasted beans.
This agent used as a beverage habitually and excessively produces indigestion, with gastric acidity, vertigo, headache, cardiac irritability, and despondency (sadness). Poisonous doses produce delirium, partial loss of consciousness, a slow irregular pulse, coldness, with a clammy perspiration, a subnormal temperature, cramps, tremors, increased urine, and diminished vision.
It is employed as a stimulant to antidote the effects of narcotics.
Ind: Insomnia, Migraine, Dysmenorrhoea, Toothache.
Synonyms: English hawthorne.
Habitat: Europe and Asia.
MT: Prepared from the ripe berries.
This agent acts upon the heart as a restorative tonic, produces a quieting and strengthening influence, and imparts tone and force to the cardiac contractions. “It is solvent and absorptive to the disease accumulations and tonic and simulative to its nutritive nerve supply”
Ind: Angina pectoris, Cardiac hypertrophy, Hypertension, Diabetes especially in children.
Habitat: United States.
MT: The venom extracted from the poison glands is triturated.
This agent when introduced into the system at once produces an increase in the pulse rate which may rise to 150. There is soon a slowing to 75 and again to rise to 100. During this time there are pains in the chest, throat and limbs, there are flashes of heat over the body which are speedily followed by sensations of cold chills. The tissue about a wound becomes edematous, the skin changes to a red color, and while later it is of a purple hue. There is great muscular debility and a gradually developing state of coma. The blood is rapidly decomposes and will not coagulate. There are hemorrhages from all the orifices of the body, the finger and toe nails become discolored and blood flows underneath them. There is a bloody greenish froth upon the lips, and death ensues.
Ind: Pyaemia, Septicaemia, Purpura haemorrhagica, Epistaxis, Dysmenorrhoea, Haemorrhages, tendency to carbuncles.
MT: Prepared from fresh root.
This agent in toxic doses produces paralysis of the roots of the motor cerebral nerves and the motor area of the spinal cord as a result paralysis of all muscles of the body. This is followed by a cutaneous anesthesia. Convulsions in animals and at times in man. The breathing is rendered slower and shallower and is frequently irregular, death results from asphyxia due to depression and ultimately paralysis of the respiratory center. The heart’s action is reduced; the pulse is slower, weaker than normal, while the arterial tension is lowered. The temperature is reduced.
Through its action on the third cranial nerve, mydriasis and ptosis results. The sixth nerve may be affected when a convergent strabismus may result with diplopia and dimness of vision. There is extreme muscular weakness and prostration while the patient is drowsy, but the mind is not affected till carbonic acid and narcosis takes place.
Ind: Measles, Cerebrospinal fever, dysmenorrhoea, vertigo, Diarrhoea from emotional excitement, Fever, Headache.
Common Name: Nitroglycerine – A light yellow, oily liquid.
This agent increases the pulse rate and produces a general throbbing of the vessels. The throbbing is most marked in the head, and gradually become worse till there is a violent, bursting frontal headache, with giddiness, fullness of the head, flushed face and sensation of constriction of the throat, accompanied by vomiting, faintness and complete insensibility. Large doses occasion heart failure in diastole
Ind: Flushes of heat at the climacteric, Throbbing headache, Effects of sunstrokes, Sun headache – increase and decrease with the sun.
Syn: Golden seal.
Habitat: United States.
It contains alkaloids, Hydrastine and Berberine.
MT prepared from the fresh roots.
This agent is a stomachic and intestinal tonic, increasing the secretion of the gastric and intestinal juices and promoting the appetite. It increases the peristaltic action of the stomach and intestinal walls, increasing their muscular tone and favors a more normal evacuation of the bowels. It has a stimulating influence upon the myocardium; a similar action is absorbed upon the muscles in general. It is deranging the digestion and constipation results; it is also a protoplasmic poison arresting the movements of the white blood corpuscles. It contain two alkaloids, Hydrastin, which is considered identical with Berbein, and act as tonic antiperiodic and cause ringing in the ears, and Hydrastine, which affects the mucous membrane. These alkaloids while not toxic in medicinal doses, have produced death in the larger animals. These were convulsions, decreased blood pressure and failure of the heart in diastole.
The elimination of this agent is largely through the kidneys.
Ind: Debility and general weakness, Jaundice, Cholelithiasis, Constipation, Apthous sore mouth, Fissured nipples, ulceration of the skin, ulcerative stage of leprosy, cancer, gonorrhoea.
Habitat: Europe, Asia, America.
Alkaloids: Hyoscyamine & Hyoscine.
MT: Prepared from the fresh plant of the second year’s growth.
While in its action this agent has many points in common with Belladonna and Stramonium, yet each has its individuality its own. Hyoscyamus does not produce intense cerebral congestion and inflammation of Belladonna, nor the intense maniacal delirium and sensorial excitement of Stramonium. It produces a sensation of fullness and heat of the head, with a flushed face without pronounced hyperaemia; indistinct, cloud vision, which may approach complete blindness, and owing to its stimulating action upon the sympathetic nerves, the pupils are dilated. There is giddiness, and a delirium that resembles drunkenness, and hallucinations. She sees things that do not exist, from which she would escape. At times she is immodest and undresses, becomes vulgar in her acts, gestures and expressions.
The delirium is apt to be accompanied by insomnia; in other cases there is an incoherent muttering, such as accompanies typhoid fever. The habitual use of this drug is an incoherent muttering, delirium of a violent character. The secretion of the respiratory tract are diminished and a dry, spasmodic cough results.
Ind: Delerium, Typhoid fever, Cerebro-spinal meningitis, infantile convulsions, insomnia, Puerperal convulsions.
Common Name: Bichromate of Potassium. It comes in large, orange-red, transparent crystals.
This agent when applied locally is an irritant caustic and is an antiseptic in the proportion of 11 to 909.
Internally it is an expectorant and emetic. The secretions of the mucous surface is increased, are tough and stringy. False membranes are formed, with tendency to ulceration. The ulcers are round, with a well-defined edge, and a tendency to perforate.
Ind: Neuralgic headache, Laryngitis, diphtheria, chronic bronchitis, tonsillitis, gastric ulcer, leucorrhoea.
Syn: The Surukuku snake of South America.
Preparation: Trituration of the venom extracted from the live snake.
This agent produces irritation of the larynx, trachea and heart. The blood is decomposed and haemorrhages result. A low asthenic conditions is developed, which is followed by convulsions and unconsciousness.
Ind: Headache, Chronic pharyngitis and laryngitis, diphtheria, congestion of the left ovary, diarrhoea, constipation, pneumonia.
Syn: Lithium, Lithii CArbonas, Carbonate of Lithium.
It affects the entire organism, but notably head, eyes, urinary organs, heart and joints. Bones, joints, muscles, whole body sore as if beaten.
Ind: Rheumatic endocarditis, Angina pectoris.
MERCRIUS SUBLIMATUS CORROSIVUS
Common name: Corrosive Sublimate, Bichloride of Mercury. It comes in heavy, colourless crystals of acrid, metallic taste.
While this agent has in the main the cardinal action of Mercury, it is characterized by a corrosive and phagedaenic tendency.
It is particularly destructive to mucous membranes, but it is influence extends to the serous membranes. It is therefore, pre-eminently a medicine for dysentery and peritonitis. The dysentery accompanied by burning in the rectum and anus during stool.
Ind: Syphilis, gonorrhoea, nephritis, dysentery, albuminuria of pregnancy, Peritonitis, nephritis, colitis.
Common Name: Cobra di capello
Preparations: Triturations of the venom obtained from the live snake.
This, like other venoms and microbial toxins, possess less toxicity when absorbed from the stomach than when introduced directly into the circulation. From the moment a bite is inflicted the symptoms of poisoning develop, attended by a condition of extreme and increasing weakness, vomiting, haemorrhages, and decomposion of the blood, echymosis and dyspnoea; deglutition is much impeded as if choking.
Ind: Valvular diseases of the heart, acute and chronic endocarditis, hypertrophy of the heart, myocarditis following diphtheria, sick headache, congestion and neuralgia of the left ovary.
A colourless liquid prepared from Nitrate of Potash or Nitrate of Soda by distillation with Sulphuric acid and water.
When this agent is applied to the skin in the diluted form it produces a yellow discoloration; when stronger preparations are applied it causes bulbous eruptions.
When administered internally the stronger preparation occasions vomiting, pain, and sloughing of the mucous membranes.
Small doses act as a stimulant to the intestinal glands, but should it be continued over a long period it will produce salivation, spongy and bleeding gums, foulness of the breath, loosening of the teeth, dyspepsia, colic, headache and debility.
Ind: Fissure with procatalgia, metrorrhagia after abortion or confinement or uterine haemorrhage from over exertion. Bleeding gums, ulceration of the soft palate. Ulcers – bleed easily. Nasal diphtheria, warts – large bleeds on washing.
Syn: Poison nut.
Habitat: East Indies, West Indies and South America.
Alkaloids: Strychnine and Brucine.
MT: Prepared from the dried nuts.
In small doses this agent is stomachic tonic, increasing the vascularity of the gastric mucous membrane, and increasing the gastric juice, as well as the biliary and pancreatic secretions. If continued over a long, period it deranges digestion. It stimulates the peristalsis of the intestines and renders them regular. The motor nerve cells of the spinal cord, cardiac ganglia, respiratory and vasomotor centers in the medulla are stimulated. The reflex excitability is increases. The respirations are quickened and deepened; the action of the heart is increased and blood pressure raised. The senses are all rendered more acute. The desire to urinate increased. It excites uterine contractions, promotes menstruation, and excites the sexual organs.
Ind: Gastralgia, Jaundice, Constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, incontinence of urine, lumbago, vertigo, umbilical hernia of infants, Itching, blind haemorrhoids, Prolepses of uteri, Dysmenorrhoea.
Syn: Passion flower.
Habitat: United states
MT: Prepared from the fresh leaves.
This agent is a narcotic and antispasmodic. In large doses it causes spasm and convulsions in animals.
Ind: Insomnia, tetanus, convulsions in children.
Common name: Tin. A metallic element of a brilliant silver-white colour.
This agent produces neurasthenia and prostration of the nervous system, with neuralgia. There is a catarrhal inflammation of the bronchioles. It is anthelmitic.
Ind: Neuralgic headache, chronic bronchitis, bronchorrhoea, chronic tuberculosis, prolapsus uteri, leucorrhoea, vermifuge.
Habitat: Grows everywhere.
MT: Prepared from the fresh herb in flower and fruit.
The action of this agent is very similar to that of Belladonna, except that the sympathetic nervous system is more affected by this than by Belladonna. It is a powerful narcotic, antispasmodic and anodyne, and in full doses is said to be aphrodisiac. The heart’s action is rendered more irregular than by Belladonna, and the involuntary muscular fibers of the bronchial tubes are relaxed to a greater extent.
Ind: Delerium, Convulsions, typhoid fever, Stammering, parkinsonism.
Habitat: Great Britain
MT: Prepared from fresh roots.
This agent, through the tanic acid and starch and asparagines which are found in it, had an action on affections of the bone and periosteum, the result of traumatism.
Ind: Traumatism, Irritable stumps after perations, non-union of fractures, injury to eye balls, periostitis due to injury.
HabitatL Cuba, South America
MT: Prepared from recently dried leaves.
This agent produces relaxation and paresis of the involuntary muscular system. There is distress in the cardiac region, with pallor of the surface, icy coldness and sweat, nausea, nervous trembling and debility.
Ind: Deathly nausea, vomiting, sea-sickness, diarrhea, atrophy of the optic nerve.