Immunology Test

Acetylcholine receptor antibody

Test Acetylcholine receptor antibody

Indication Severe weakness

Physiology The antibodies are developed against the self-acetylcholine receptor. ELISA and RIA is recommended

Normal Range 0.03nmol/L

Interpretation Values greater than 0.03nmol/L is critical which indicates fatigues and muscle weakness

Adenovirus antibody titer

Test Adenovirus antibody titer

Indication Adenovirus infections

Physiology This test is routinely done to detect the presence of antibodies against adenovirus. Complement fixation test and ELISA is performed

Normal Range 1:16

Interpretation An antibody response indicates the adenovirus infections

Adrenal antibody

Test Adrenal antibody

Indication Addison’s disease

Physiology This test is performed to detect the insufficient secretion of adrenaline. Indirect fluorescent antibody test is used.

Interpretation A negative tests indicate adrenaline insufficiency characterized by Addisons disease

Adrenal antibody serum test

Test Adrenal antibody serum test

Indication Idiopathic addisons disease

Physiology This test is used to evaluate adrenal insufficiency. A fluorescent antibody is used.

Interpretation Increased levels are seen in adrenal disorders, tuberculosis and cancer of adrenal glands

Alpha 1 -antitrypsin

Test Alpha 1 -antitrypsin

Indication Chronic obstructive lung disease

Physiology A serum sample is required .This enzyme is produced in the liver

Normal Range 78-200mgs/dl

Interpretation Increased levels are seen in cirrhosis and rheumatoid arthiritis, bacterial infections. Values below 70mgs/dL are seen in severe lung disease

Anti-DNA

Test Anti-DNA

Indication Systemic lupus erythematosis

Physiology A serum sample is required

Interpretation Detection of antibody to DNA indicates autoimmune disease

Antibody test

Test Antibody test

Physiology The test commonly includes detecting IgG and IgM antibody titers against influenza A and B virus

Anticardiolipin antibody

Test Anticardiolipin antibody

Indication Thromboses

Physiology These are synthesized in autoimmune conditions like systemus lupus erythematosus. An enzyme immunoassay is required

Interpretation Presence of antibodies to cardiolipin indicates thrombocytopenia

Antideoxyribonuclease-B titer,serum

Test Antideoxyribonuclease-B titer,serum

Indication Streptococcal infections

Physiology This exhibits more antigenicity

Normal Range Less than 170 units

Interpretation Increased values indicate streptococcal infections

Antihyaluronidase titer

Test Antihyaluronidase titer

Indication Glomerulonephritis

Physiology A fasting specimen is required

Normal Range AH less than 1:250 is considered normal

Interpretation An increase in titer indicates streptococcal infections in glomerulus

Antimitochondrial antibody

Test Antimitochondrial antibody

Indication Chronic cirrohosis

Physiology This antibody is generally seen in the case of cirrohosis. ELISA is used

Interpretation A positive tests indicate severe cirrohosis

Antineutrophil antibody

Test Antineutrophil antibody

Indication Presence of neutrophil and granulocyte antibody

Physiology Generallyneutrophils should be in normal range

Interpretation Detection of antibodies indicates neutropenia

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Test Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Indication Inflammation of respiratory tracts

Physiology This test is done to assess the presence of antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane. Indirect fluorescence antibody is required

Interpretation Detection of antibodies indicates inflammation of respiratory tracts and glomerular characterized by Wegner’s syndrome

Antinuclear antibody

Test Antinuclear antibody

Indication Systemic lupus erythematosus

Physiology This test is used to detect autoantibodies against the self-antigen in the nucleus

Normal Range Reference range varies from lab to lab

Interpretation Positive tests indicates SLE and chronic hepatitis

Antistreptolysin O titer serum

Test Antistreptolysin O titer serum

Indication Acute fever and infections

Physiology This test is done to detect antibodies against streptolysin o

Normal Range Greater than 166 todd units

Interpretation Elevated titers are seen in rheumatic fever and kidney infections

Automated reagin test

Test Automated reagin test

Indication Presence of syphilis

Physiology The number of cases of syphilis has been on continuous increase in the recent years. An agglutination test is performed

Interpretation Detection of antibodies indicate recent infections

Beta2-microglobulin

Test Beta2-microglobulin

Indication Activity of HIV Virus

Physiology It is a 100 aminoacid pepetide and is a member of class 1 HLA complex. Radioimmunoassay is performed

Normal Range 10nmol/day

Interpretation Increased levels indicates severity of AIDS, Inflammations and leukemia

Bordetella pertussis

Test Bordetella pertussis

Indication Whooping cough

Physiology Bordetella pertusis causes whooping cough. Nasophartngeal swab is required. Fluorescent antibody is required

Interpretation Identification of anti Ig-M antibodies indicate recent infections

C 3 complement

Test C 3 complement

Indication Lupus erythematosus

Physiology C 3 comprises of 70% of total complement protein and also alternative pathways.  A radial immunodifussion test is performed

Normal Range 0.90-2.00g/L

Interpretation Decreased levels are seen in acute phase response glomerulonephritis

C 4 complement

Test C 4 complement

Indication Lupus erythematosus

Physiology C 4 is utilized only by classical pathway. Radial immunodifussion test is performed

Interpretation Decreased levels indicates serum sickness, immune complex disease

C-reactive protein

Test C-reactive protein

Indication Infectious diseases

Physiology It is produced by liver. A radioimmunoassay is performed

Normal Range Above 8 milligrams/Ml

Interpretation Panic range-values above 8 micrograms/mL indicate infectious diseases and inflammatory states

C1 Esterase inhibitor serum

Test C1 Esterase inhibitor serum

Indication Angioedema

Physiology C1 is one of the complement components. Freeze serum immediately. Radial immunodifussion method is used.

Normal Range 8-24mgs/dl

Interpretation Values below 8mgs/Dl indicates angioedema

C1 q Immune complex

Test C1 q Immune complex

Indication Autoimmune diseases

Physiology This is used to detect circulating immune complexes. Radioimmunoassay is done. This test is based on the fact that this component binds to Fc portion of the antibody in antigen antibody complexes

Candida antigen test

Test Candida antigen test

Indication Immunocomprimised

Physiology It detects candida antigen in serum samples.ELISA test is performed

Interpretation A negative test indicates low immunity

Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G

Test Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G

Indication Multiple scelerosis

Physiology This immunoglobulin is generally increased in the case of central nervous system disorders and inflammations. Radial immunodifussion test is performed

Normal Range 5%-12%

Interpretation Panic range-values greater than 12% indicate neurologic disorders

Cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein

Test Cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein

Indication Multiple scelerosis

Physiology This test measures the myelin fragments released in to the spinal cord due to degenerative diseases in the spinal cord. Radioimmunoassay and enzyme assay is performed

Normal Range 6microgrma/ml

Interpretation Panic range-values greater than 6 micrograms/mL indicates degenerative diseases

Complement, Total

Test Complement, Total

Indication Rheumatoid arthiritis and lupus erythematosus

Physiology This test is performed to estimate the total serum complement .Quantitative hemolysis and radial immunodifussion test is performed

Normal Range 100 CH 50 units

Interpretation Decreased levels are seen in autoimmune disease

Coxsackie A virus titer

Test Coxsackie A virus titer

Indication Respiratory illness

Physiology This test is done to detect antibodies to coxsackie A virus. Virus neutralization and complement fixation tests are done

Interpretation Increase in titer indicates meningitis, pericarditis, respiratory tract illness

Cryoglobulin, serum

Test Cryoglobulin, serum

Indication Leukemia

Physiology They precipitate from serum at low temperatures and dissolve at 4 ‘ c

Interpretation An increased level indicates myeloma, leukemia necrosis and viral infections

Cytomegalovirus antibody test

Test Cytomegalovirus antibody test

Indication Intrauterine infection

Physiology This virus is transmitted through intrauterine and can infect whether or not maternal immunity exists. Indirect fluorescent antibody and immunoassay is performed

Normal Range IgM-titer greater than 1:16,IgG titer greater than 1:32

Interpretation                   Increase of IgG and IgM indicates congenital cytomegalovirus

Entamoeba histolytica serological test

Test Entamoeba histolytica serological test

Indication Liver abscess

Physiology This bacterium causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. Complement fixation and immunodifussion test is performed

Normal Range Complement fixation titer-1:8

Glomerular besement antibody test

Test Glomerular besement antibody test

Indication Renal disease

Physiology The body develops antibodies against the self-glomerular basement membrane. Enzyme immunoassay is performed

Heliobacter pylori serology test

Test Heliobacter pylori serology test

Indication Peptic ulcer and gastritis

Physiology The test involves the detection of IgG and IgM which will be developed in the host against this bacterium. ELISA test is performed

Hepatitis A Antibody test

Test Hepatitis A Antibody test

Indication Acute hepatitis A

Physiology The test involves the detection of IgM antibody against this virus using ELISA

Hepatitis Be antigen

Test Hepatitis Be antigen

Indication Chronic hepatitis

Physiology The hepatitis-Be antigen is detected in chronic stage of the disease. Radioimmunoassay is performed

HIV-1/HIV-2 serology

Test HIV-1/HIV-2 serology

Indication AIDS

Physiology This test is to detect the antibody developed against HIV by ELISA and confirm it by western blot

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis serology

Test Hypersensitivity pneumonitis serology

Indication Acute bronchospasm

Physiology This disease develops due to allergy and subsequent hypersensitivity to organic dusts. Immunodifussion tests is performed

IgA antibodies test

Test IgA antibodies test

Indication Transfusion reaction symptoms like sweating, pain and collapse

Physiology In the case of transfusion reaction if the recipient develops antibodies against IgA then anaphylactic shock appears

Normal Range Antibody not present

Influenza A and B titer

Test Influenza A and B titer

Indication Influenza virus infection

Leishmaniasis serological test

Test Leishmaniasis serological test

Indication Kala-azar

Physiology Leishmania donovani infects spleen, bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes. ELISA test is performed

Leptospirosis serodiagonsis test

Test Leptospirosis serodiagonsis test

Indication Febrile illness

Physiology Caused by Leptospira.ELISA test is performed

Lymphogranuloma venerum titer

Test Lymphogranuloma venerum titer

Indication Pelvic inflammatory disease

Physiology It is a sexually transmitted disease. A complement fixation test is done

Measles antibody test

Test Measles antibody test

Indication Rubella

Physiology Measles is caused by virus and infects respiratory tract, causes cough and fever. ELISA test is done.

Normal Range Hemagglutination inhibition-less than 1:10 neutralisation-less than 1:10

Interpretation A fourfold increase in IgM titer indicates viral xanthemias

Mixed lymphocyte culture

Test Mixed lymphocyte culture

Indication Graft rejection

Physiology During transplantation tissue matching is done to evaluate graft acceptance

Normal Range Response is compared with that of normal control

Interpretation A positive response indicates graft rejection

Mumps serology

Test Mumps serology

Indication Mumps

Physiology It is caused by paramyxovirus. ELISA test is done.

Interpretation An increasing titer with increase in viral to soluble titer indicates viral infection

Mycoplasma serology

Test Mycoplasma serology

Indication Pneumonia

Physiology This test involves the evaluation of response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

Normal Range IgG-greater than-1:10,IgM-greater than 1:10

Interpretation panic range – A fourfold increase in antibody titer indicates recnt infection

p24 antigen test

Test p24 antigen test

Indication HIV

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation A positive test indicates recent HIV infection

Parasite antibody test

Test Parasite antibody test

Indication parasitic infection

Physiology It consists of batteries of antibodies raised against a particular parasite

Normal Range Negative

Phagocytic cell immunocompetence profile

Test Phagocytic cell immunocompetence profile

Indication Granulomatous disease

Physiology This test is done to evaluate complement and phagocytic cell function disorders

Normal Range C 3-900-2000microgrms/ml,C 4-200-800 micrograms/ml

Interpretation   panic range C3-greater than 2000 micrograms/ml. C-4 greater than 800 micrograms/mL

Pneumocystis fluorescence

Test Pneumocystis fluorescence

Indication Pneumonia

Physiology Pneumonia caused by pneumocystis carinii is a common complication in AIDS

Normal Range Antibody titer-serum less than 1:16

Interpretation Panic range-Organisms seen

Poliomyelitis I, II, III titer

Test Poliomyelitis I, II, III titer

Indication Polio

Physiology The test involves the detection of poliovirus antibodies in patients’ serum

Normal Range Greater than 1:8

Interpretation A fourfold increase in titer indicates polio infections

Protein electrophoresis in urine

Test Protein electrophoresis in urine

Indication Multiple myeloma

Physiology This test is done for the quantification of albumins, alpha-1,alpha-2,beta and gamma globulin

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation Higher values indicate lymphoma, myeloma

Protein electrophoresis serum

Test Protein electrophoresis serum

Indication Multiple myeloma

Physiology This test is done for the quantification of albumins, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta and gamma globulin

Normal Range Albumin 5.90 – 8.00, Alpha 1 – 4.00 – 5.50, Alpha 2 – 0.15 – 0.25, Beta – 5-1.00, Gamma – 0.60 – 1.30

Interpretation Higher values indicate cirrhosis, infections, multiple myeloma, acute infections

Respiratory synctial virus serology

Test Respiratory synctial virus serology

Indication Respiratory infection

Rheumatoid factor

Test Rheumatoid factor

Indication Rheumatoid arthritis

Physiology It is an autoimmune disease. Rheumatoids are antibodies directed against our own cells

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation Increased IgM antibodies indicate Rheumatoid arthritis

Rotavirus serology

Test Rotavirus serology

Indication Diarrhea in children

Physiology This test involves the detection of antibodies against rotavirus

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation Detection of antibodies indicates viral infections

Rubella serology

Test Rubella serology

Indication German measles

Physiology It involves the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Rubella. ELISA test is performed

Interpretation   panic range Detection of IgG and IgM in pregnant women

Salmonella titer

Test Salmonella titer

Indication Typhoid

Physiology The genus salmonella are gram negative bacteria which cause typhoid. Agglutination test is performed

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation A fourfold increase in titer indicates typhoid fever

Scleroderma antibody test

Test Scleroderma antibody test

Indication Scelerosis

Physiology Sceleroderma is a multisystem disease which causes scelerosis of skin, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, heart and kidney

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation Detection of sceleroderma antibody indicates scelerosis

Serum febrile agglutinin tests

Test Serum febrile agglutinin tests

Indication Persistent fever

Physiology This test is to detect antibody titer of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Agglutination reaction is carried out

Smooth muscle antibody

Test Smooth muscle antibody

Indication Liver disease

Physiology The test involves the detection of antismooth muscle antibody against smooth muscle antibody

Normal Range 0.097222222

Interpretation   panic range Titer values greater than 1:80 indicates biliary cirrhosis

Sporotrichosis serology

Test Sporotrichosis serology

Indication Arthritis

Physiology This fungal organism invade the fungal extremity and spreads in the lymphatics

Normal Range 1:16

Interpretation Titers greater than 1:16 indicates recent infection

Streptozyme test

Test                                       Streptozyme test

Indication Streptococcal infections

Physiology The test involves the sensitization of sheep red blood cells against five streptococcal exoenzymes

Normal Range >100 units

Interpretation   panic range <100 units

T and B lymphocyte subset assay

Test T and B lymphocyte subset assay

Indication Leukemia, lymphoma, AIDS

Physiology Monoclonal antibody reacts with the subsets of T and B lymphocytes. T and B lymphocytes contain a number of subset components. Erythrocyte rossette assay is performed

Normal Range T cells->80%, B cells >60%

Interpretation   Panic range T cells<80%.B cells greater than 60% indicate immunodeficiency states

Teichoic acid antibody

Test Teichoic acid antibody

Indication Endocarditis and osteomyelitis

Physiology The test involves the detection of serological response to teichoic acid produced from staphyloccus aureus

Normal Range ≤1:2

Interpretation Titers higher than the normal value indicates chronic infections

Tetanus antibody

Test Tetanus antibody

Indication Tetanus

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation Presence of hemaglutinating antibody indicates recent tetanus infection

Thyroid antithyroglobulin antibody

Test Thyroid antithyroglobulin antibody

Indication Autoimmune thyroiditis

Physiology Antibodies to thyroglobulin is detected in 70% of cases. Haemagglutination test is carried out

Normal Range > 1: 400

Thyrotropin receptor antibody

Test Thyrotropin receptor antibody

Indication Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ disease

Physiology It is an autoantibody to the thyroid cell receptor for thyroid hormones. Radioreceptor asasay is performed

Normal Range Negative

Interpretation Detection of these antibodies confirms Graves’ disease

TORCH test

Test TORCH test

Indication Congenital infection

Physiology Toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes are capable of causing infections. ELISA test is carried out

Normal Range Varies from lab to lab

Interpretation                   Increased IgM and IgG titres confirm the presence of encephalitis and hepatitis

Toxoplasmosis gondii

Test Toxoplasmosis gondii

Indication Central nervous system disorders in AIDS

Physiology Toxoplasama gondii is excreted by cats and if encountered by immune-compromised patients causes cerebritis .Indirect fluorescence antibody test is carried out.

Normal Range > 1: 164

Interpretation An increasing immunofluorescence antibody titer indicates recent infections

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s