The term pharmacy means the art of collecting, preparing, preserving, compounding, combining and dispensing medicines according to the prescription of a physician.
From which language the word pharmacy originated?
The original word pharmacy comes from Greek language.
What are the types of Pharmacy?
ð Official Pharmacy – Preparation of drugs according to official pharmacopoeia.
ð Extemporaneous pharmacy – Preparation of medicine according to the prescription of physician.
ð Galenical pharmacy- Related to crude drugs only.
What is Pharmaconomy?
Pharmaconomy is deals with route of administration.
What is Pharmacopolaxy?
Pharmacopolaxy deals with repetation of doses of medicine.
What is Pharmacognosy?
Pharmacognosy is a of the branches of Pharmacology which deals with the characteristics of various sources of drugs which serve as a means of identification, like distribution, morphology, cellular structure, biochemistry etc.
What is Pharmacopraxy?
Pharmacopraxy is the art and science which deals how crude drug sub are converted into real medicine.
What is Pharmacology?
Pharmacology is the science that deals with different aspects of the drugs especially the study of action of drugs in living subjects.
What is Pharmacodynamics?
Pharmacodybamics is the branch of pharmacology which helps to acquire the knowledge about the actions &effects of drugs on living systems especially in the dynamic level both in health & diseases (Interaction of the drug molecules in the body).
What is Monograph?
Monograph is the detailed record of the standard specifications for each drug or medicine recorded in the pharmacopoeia.
Pharmacopoeia is a standard book containing the source, preparation and analysis of approved medicines.
The word pharmacopoeia was originated from which language?
What is Pharmacopoeia?
It is the supreme authoritative book, published by an authority, government of any country that deals with the rules and regulations of standardization of drug substance. It contains direction for collection of drug substances from different sources, their preparation, preservation and standards that determine thir strength and purity.
Were we can found the earliest instruction for Homoepathic medicinal preparation?
The earliest instruction for the homoeopathic medicinal preparation is found in a book ‘Fragmenta be Virbus Medicamentorum. Published by Dr.Hahnemann. This is the first Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia in the world
Which one is the first Homoepathic pharmacopoeia?
German Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia.
In which year first homoeopathic pharmacopoeia is published?
First homoeopathic pharmacopoeia in 1825.
Who publish the first Homeopathic pharmacopoeia?
Dr. Carl.W. Caspari, Leipzig, Germany
Which one is the First Indian Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia?
First homoeopathic pharmacopoeia in India – by M. Bhattacharya &Co. of Calcutta in 1893 called “Pharmaceutics manual”. Revised edition in 1902 and is called “M. Bhattacharya & Co. Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia”
Which one is the first Official Indian Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia?
First official Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia of India is -HPI – published in 1971 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Govt. of India.
What are the different volumes of Official Indian Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia?
- Volume I - 1971 - 180 drugs
- Volume II - 1974 - 100 drugs
- Volume III - 1978 - 105 drugs
- Volume IV - 1984 - 107 drugs
- Volume V - 1986 - 114 drugs
- Volume VI - 1990 - 104 drugs
- Volume VII - 1999 - 105 drugs
- Volume VIII - 2000 - 101 drugs
Who published Indian official Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia
Homoepathic pharmacopoeia committee appointed by Government of India.
What is Monographs?
The Monograph contains details about:
- Name of the drug,
- Synonyms of the drug,
- Official description,
- Parts used,
- Authority and history
What is mean by pharmacology?
It is the science which deals with the study of action of drug on living system, including their properties and reaction.
What is Pharmacognosy?
Are a branch of pharmacology dealing with the origin, distinguishing properties, identification, biological, biochemical, economic features of natural drugs and their constituents.
What is mean by pharmacodynamics?
It is the study of the action of drugs on living systems especially the dynamic action in health and disease in homoeopathy.
It is the branch that deals with the route of administration of remedies.
It is the art of preparing medicine where by crude drug substances are converted into real medicines.
What is Official Pharmacy?
Official Pharmacy means preparation of drugs according to the process which are prescribed in an official pharmacopoeia.
What is mean by Extemporaneous Pharmacy?
Extemporaneous pharmacy means preparation and distribution of medicines according to the prescription of a Physician.
What are the sources of Homoeopathic drugs?
- Vegitable kingdom
- Animal Kingdom
- Chemical Kingdom
- Synthetic source or Tautology.
What is mean by Combining?
Combining is the process of joining two or more things together – the product is a mechanical mixture.
What is mean by Compounding?
Compounding is the process of uniting two or more elements or constituents together so as to form an altogether new product which have new properties different from those of its constituents eg. CaS (Hepar Sulph).
Drug is a substance, which possessed the power of affecting the human or animal organism in health and disease.
When a drug has been proved on healthy human being of different ages of both sexes, male or female and their subjective and objective symptoms have been thoroughly known, and then it is called medicine.
An indicated medicine is a remedy, which is administered to a patient on basis of symptom similarity is known as remedy.
What is Mother Tincture?
Mother tincture is the tincture is prepared from plants, their parts and animal substances, with the help of alcohol and is the starting substance for preparation of Homoeopathic potencies.
What is Menstrum?
It is a liquid which is capable of penetrating the tissues of plants or animal substance and capable of dissolving the active principles.
What is Merc?
Merc is the inert fibrous insoluble material remaining after the expression of the juice from drug materials after maceration or percolation.
What is Magma?
Magma is the thick residue of soft doughy mass resulting from the expression of fluid part of the substance.
Define Materia medica?
Is a book, which contains the collected facts from different experiments, clinical experiences, including their experiments, clinical experiences, including their pharmacodynamic affects of the drug and their method of application and dose, are called materia medica.
What is a Nosode say two examples?
Medicines derived from the diseased products of human beings, animals and plants. E.g. Psorinum, Syphillinum, Pyrogen, etc.
What is a Sarcodes?
Medicines derived from the healthy animal tissues and secretions. E.g. Thyroidinum, adrenalin, etc.
What is Iimpondrablia?
Medicines derived from the immaterial elements or energies, e.g.: X-ray, Sun’s rays (Sola), Moon light (Luna), etc.
What is posology?
The study dose is called posology.
What is a dose?
The quantity of medicine to be taken at one time
What is mean by divided dose?
Is a factional portion to be taken at one time?
What is a maximum dose?
Is the largest dose, which can be taking with safety.
What is a minimum dose?
Is the smallest effective dose
What is a lethal dose?
A fatal dose.
100 poppy-seed sized globule weigh how gram?
100 Poppy-seed sized globules weighs 1 grain (65 mg).
What is the drug strength of 50 millesimal scae?
Drug strength of mother tincture of 50 millesimal scales is 1 /5x 108
What is the drug strength of 1st potency of 50 milesimal scale?
Drug strength of 1st potency of 50 millesimal scale is l/5xl010.
In the trituration of mercury compounds, sacrum lactis is not usually used, why?
In the trituration of mercury compounds, sacrum lactis is not usually used; because sacrum lactis has got aldehyde properties and due to this, reduces the mercury compounds during trituration. In such cases, camphor which has got less aldehyde properties is used.
What is Fluxion potency?
Trituration of insoluble materials at the stage of 6X or 3rd potency is converted to liquid potencies of 8X or 4th potencies.
Difine shortly the method of potentisation of Fincke’s fluxion potency?
Fincke’s fluxion method of potentisation -100 drops of 1st potency is kept in a tumbler and water is allowed to fall into the tumbler. Each 5 ml or 1 grain that pours out from the tumbler is the next potency.
What are the different scales used in preparation of medicines?
Decimal scale, centesimal scale, 50 Millesimal scales
Who introduced centesimal scale?
What is the drug strength of Centesimal scale?
Drug strength 1/100
Who introduced decimal scale?
What is the drug strength of Decial scale?
Drug strength 1/10.
Who introduced 50-millesimal scales?
What is the Drug of 50-millesimal scale?
Drug strength – 1/5000
How many strokes applied for to prepare decimal scale potency?
How many strokes applied for to prepare centesimal scale potency?
How many strokes applied for to make 50-millesimal potency?
Where Hahneman described the process of preparing medicine by triturating?
Chronic disease – vol-1
How long you will have to triturate to get one potency?
What is a succussion?
Is a method of potentisation of soluble drug substances.
What are the instruments used for preparation of Homooeopathic medicines?
- Mortar and pestle
- Chopping board and knife
- Leather pad for succession
What are the instrument required for weighing, measuring and storage?
- Meassuring cylinder
- Graduated conical glass
- Measuring tile
- Volumetric flask
- Official medicine dropper
- Spatula and spoon
What are the instruments used in heating?
- Water bath,
- Sand bath,
- Wire gauze and tripod stand,
- Hot air oven,
What are the instruments used in laboratory procedures?
- Evaporating dish,
- Retrot sti
- Tray dryer
Which balance we use mostly for the preparation of homoeopathic medicines?
What is mean by Decantation?
Decantation is the process of slowly and correctly pouring liquid from one vessel to another.
What is Desiccator?
Is an instrument is used for desiccation, to remove moisture completely from substances and also to keep hygroscopic materials i.e. that materials which absorb moisture from the atmosphere.
What is a sieve, and what is its use?
Is a vessel with meshed or perforated bottom for separating fine powders from coarser substance.
What are the different types of Sieves?
- Silk sieve,
- Stainless steel wire sieve,
- Hair sieve.
What are the different types of press?
- Wooden press
- Spiral twist press
- Roller press
- Hydraulic press
What is the use of a Crucible?
Used for drying the hard substance in small amounts.
What is the use of a Water bath?
Used for the purpose of heating at low temperature.
Common hydrometer is used for what purpose?
Used for rapid and easy measurement of the relative density or specific gravity of different liquids.
What is the use of presses?
For squeezing juices from the medicinal plants, herbs, leaves, seeds. And also used as a filter after the maceration.
What are the different types of Spatula?
- Stainless steel,
- Rubber spatula,
- Horn spatula,
- Bone spatula,
- Porcelain spatula.
What are the different types of Mortars?
- Agate mortar
- Porcelain mortar
- Iron or steel mortar
- Glass mortar
- Wedgewood mortar
- Power mortar
What are the utilities of Agate mortar?
Used to pulverize very hard substances.
What are the uses of Iron or Steel mortar and pestle?
Used for pulverizing very hard substances like hard seed of Nux.vom, Sabal serrulata, etc.
What are the uses of Porcelain mortar and pestle?
For triturating purpose of soft substances or crystals. And also used for ointment preparation.
What is the use of Glass mortar and pestle?
For mercurial preparation.
What are the uses of Wedgwood morar?
Used to pulverize crystalline solids.
What is the use of power mortars?
Large scale triturations for commercial purpose.
What are the uses of a hot-air oven?
Used for evaporating the moisture of vegetable drugs or other raw materials and determination of solid contents of mother tincture.
Gutta purcha bottles are used for what propose?
Used for preserving Fluoric acid and Q solutions.
Sugar of milk is prepared from which substance?
In India what substance is the main source of alcohol?
It is a substance which canot be separated into more than one substance or decomposed into any simpler substance by ordinary chemical reaction.
When two or more elements unite chemically in some definite propotion, they form a substance quite different from them and this is called as a compound.
It is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance on of which is a liquid and cannot be separated easily either by filteraton or decantation.
Filteration considered passing a liquid through a porous medium so as to separate the insoluble suspended substance from the solution.
What is mean by digestion?
When the maceration is done in hot liquid it is known as digestion.
Desication is a method of drying or removing the moisture from any substance.
Is a process of steeping or softening the medicinal substance in some menstrum or solvent for a considerable time, under normal conditions of temperature and pressure?
Is a process of short successive maceration or it can be considered as a process of displacement?
Prescription is the written direction given by a physician to the compounder or pharmacist for the preparation of the medicine as well as instruction to the patient about mode of intake.
The word prescription was originated from which language?
How many parts of a prescription?
What is mean by Superscription?
Is the part of prescription, which consists of the letter R/ (recipio-to take), Name of the patient, Address of the patient, Age of the patient.
What is mean by Inscription?
It is the part of prescription or body of the prescription, which consist of Name of the remedy, name and quantity of the vehicles, potency of the remedy, and quantity of the remedy.
What is mean by subscription?
It is the part of prescription, which consists of quality of the remedy, direction to the compounder.
What is mean by Signature?
It is the part of prescription, which consists of direction to the patient, signature of the physician, registration number, and date.
Vechilce is defined as substances which have no medicinal property of their own and are used in preparation, preservation and application of medicines.
What are the types of vehicles?
- Solid vehicles,
- Liquid vehicles,
- Semi-solid vehicles.
What are the different types of solid vehicles?
- Sugar of milk,
- Cane sugar,
- Grape sugar (sucrose),
- Globules & Pillules,
- Tablets or tabloids,
What are the different types of liquid vehicles?
- Distilled water,
- Simple Syrup,
- Oive oil,
- Almond oil,
- Sandal wood oil,
- Sesame oil,
- Coconut oil,
- Levender oil,
- Rosemary oil,
- Chaulmoogra oil),
- Solvent ether
What are the different types of semi-sold vehicles?
- Hard Paraffin
- Soft paraffin
- Yellow soft paraffin
- White soft paraffin
- Liquid Paraffin
- Bees Wax
- Yellow bees wax
- White bees wax
- Prepared lard
- Hard soap
- Soft soap
- Curd soap
What are the different types of vehicles used for preparation of mother tincture, mother solution and mother substance?
- Distilled water
- Sugar of milk
- Solvent ether
What are the different vehicles used for potentization?
- Sugar of mik
- Distilled water
What are the different vehicles used for dispensing Homoeopathic Medicine?
- Sugar of milk
- Distiled water
- Syrup simplex.
Liquid vehicle – Alcohol and distilled water, Solid vehicles such as sugar of milk, cane sugar and Grape sugar.
What are the different types of vehicles used for external application?
- Distilled water,
- Almond oil,
- Olive oil,
- Sesame oil,
- Rosemary oil
- Chaulmoogra oil
- Coconut oil
- Sandalwood oi
- Lavender oil
- Prepared lard,
What are the different type soaps?
- Soft soap
- Hard soap,
- Curd soap.
From which substance globules, pillules, pellets are prepared?
Pure Cane sugar (Pharmaceutica grade of cane sugar/sucrose)
What are the different types of alcohols?
- Absolute alcohol,
- Strong alcohol,
- Dilutes alcohol,
- Dispensing alcohol,
- Rectified spirit,
- Proof spirit.
What is Absolute alcohol?
Absolute alcohol is theoretically 100%pure, practically 99.5%by volume.
What is the specific gravity of Absolute alcohol?
Specific gravity of absolute alcohol is 0.792.
What are the use of Absolute alcohol?
- Stapfs process for the purification of sugar of milk,
- Preparation of Merc sol.
What is Strong Alcohol?
Strong alcohol is 95% by volume.
What is the specific gravity of strong acohol?
Specific gravity strong alcohol is 0.816
What are the Synonys of Strong alcohol?
- Spirit of Wine,
- Spiritus vini rectificatus.
- Alcohol fortior.
- Alcohol fortis.
What are the sources of Strong alcohol?
- Fruit Juices
- Wood and waste sulphite liquors
What are the uses of Strong alcohol?
- Preparation of mother tinctures
- Preparation of alcoholic mother solutions
- Added to the juice of plants to prevent their deterioration.
- Used as a base in certain external applications (Tincture of soap, Liniment),
- Preparation of other verities of dilute alcohols.
What is Absolute alcohol?
It may be obtained from rectified spirit. It contain 94.4% by volume of ethyl alcohol
What is the utility of Absolute alcohol?
Used in Stapf process for the purification of sugar of milk.
What is Dispensing alcohol?
It is prepared form strong alcohol. Dilute 947 ml of strong alcohol to 1000 ml with purified alcohol. It contains 91.4% by volume of ethyl alcohol.
What are the synonyms of dispensing alcohol?
- Alcohol officianalis,
- Official alcohol.
What are the utility of dispensing alcohol?
- Preparation of dilution from the tinctures
- Conversion of solid triturations into liquid potencies.
What is dilute alcohol?
According to the Homoeopathuic pharmacopoeia of India, dilute 632 ml of strong alcohol to 1000 ml with purified water. It contains 60% by volume of ethyl alcohol.
What are the utility of dilute alcohol?
- Conversion of trituration into liquid potencies.
- Preparations of 1X and 1C potencies from mother tincture according to the old method.
- Preparation of evaporating lotions.
- Cleansing of utensils.
What is Rectified spirit?
Rectified spirit contain 91.29%by volume of ethy alcohol.
What are the uses of rectified spirit?
- Potentisation of medicines,
- Dispensing purpose.
What is Denaturated Alcohol?
This is ethyl alcohol to which have been added such denaturating material as to render the alcohol unfit for use as an intoxicating beverage.
What is Proof spirit?
Proof spirit is, By Act of Parliament, it is a mixture of alcohol and purified water weighing 12/13th of an equal weight of purified water at 51° F. It contains 57.1% by volume of ethy acohol.
What are the synonyms of Glycerine
What is Solvent Ether.
It is otherwise called Diethyl ether. It is produced from ethyl alcohol or fro ethylene.
What are the utility of Sovent ether
- When alcohol with water cannot extract the drug substance from plant.
- Most alaloids, resins, resins, balsams, and tannic acid are easily dissolved by it.
- Dissolv e corrosive subliate very quickly.
What is simple syrup?
A concentration solution of sucrose is called syrup. It is otherwise called Syrup simplex.
What are the utility of syrup?
- Used as a vehicle to dispense mother tincture.
- Used as a placebo.
What is Olive Oil?
It is a fixed oil obtained by expression from the ripe fruit of Olea europea. It is otherwise called Oleum olivae.
What are the utility of Olive oil?
- Preparing liniments and plasters.
- Used as soothing agent over the ulcers and burns.
- Externally used as skin smoother.
What are the usual adulterants of olive oil?
Arachis oil or groundnut oil.
What is Almond oil?
Amond oil is fixed oil obtained from the kernels of seeds of Prunus amygdalus. It is otherwise called Oleum amygdale expressum.
What are the utility of Almond oil?
- Preparation of liniment.
- Used as soothing agent for chapped hands, excoriations and irritable skin.
What is Sesame oil?
It is refines fixed oil obtained by expression from seeds of Sesamum indicum.
What are the synonyms of Sesame oil?
- Oleu sesame
- Gingelly oil
- Benne oil
- Teel oil
What are the utilities of sesame oil?
- Used instead of olive oil in the preparation of liniment.
- Used to prepare hair oil.
What is Chaulmoogra Oil?
It is the fatty fixed oil expressed from the fresh ripe seeds of Hydnocarpus kurzii or Hydnocarpus wightiana. It is otherwise called Oleum chaulmoorgrae.
What is coconut oil?
The fixed oil is obtained by expression from kernels of the seeds of Cocos nucifera.
What are the utilities of Coconut oil?
Used as the base for medicated hair oil.
What is Sandalwood oil?
It is the volatile oil obtained from the dried heartwood of Santalum album. It is otherwise called Oleum santali.
What are the utilites of sandalwood oil?
Used as external application.
What is Levender oil?
Levender oil is the volatie oil obtained by distillation from the fresh flowering tops of Levendula Officinalis. It is otherwise called Oleum lavendulae.
What are the utilities of Levender Oil?
- Applied on superficial ulcers without alcohol.
- Used with alcohol for soothing effect in headache.
What is Rosemary oil?
It is a volatile oil prepared from fresh flowering tops or leafy twigs of Rosmarinus officinalis. It is otherwise called Oleum rosmarini.
What are the utilities of Rosemary oil?
- It is a component of liniment.
- Used in the form of hair oil.
What are the main impurities found in the alcohol?
The reason why alcohol is considered to be best vehicle for potentisation?
Easily available, preparation is not much difficult, its greatest solvent power, no medicinal property of its own, will not deteriorate, easy to prepare medicine and to medicate globules, Prevent moulds, Yeast and fermentation of the material inside.
What are the defects of alcohol?
Easily gets evaporated, inflammable, excise control over alcohol, May not dissolve many inorganic salts directly, aluminous and starchy material may not dissolve.
How to measure a size of globules?
How to medicate globules?
Say few examples of vehicles used for external application?
Olive oil, Oil of rosemary, Glycerin, Vaseline, etc.
What is mean by Spermaceti?
Spermaceti is the waxy substance obtained from the head of the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus
What is mean by prepared Lard?
Prepared Lard (lard) is the purified internal fat of the abdomen of the pig; used as an ingredient in the preparation of ointments.
What is mean by Laonolin?
Lanolin is the purified anhydrous fat like substance (grease) obtained from the wool (curly hair) of the sheep, ovis aries
What is mean by Isin glass?
It is prepared from the air bladder or fish sound of some variety fishes. It is a component of Arnica and Calendula plasters
What is a Glycerol?
Prepared by mixing the mother tincture of a drug and glycerin in various proportions is called glycerol.
What is mean by menstrum?
A liquid capable of penetrating the tissue of drug and dissolving the active principle.
What is mean by Marc?
The inert, fibrous and insoluble matter remaining after maceration, percolation or any other form of extraction of the juice from drugs and other substances.
What is mean by Magma?
The thick residue or the soft doughy mass resulting from the expression of the fluid part of certain substance.
What is mean by Standardization?
It is the process of selecting or making the material in uniform standard as mentioned in the pharmacopoeias.
What is a capillary analysis?
Is a simple method of standardization given elaborately in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, used to estimate the approximate alcohol content and other constituents in crude drugs, tinctures and even very low potencies.
What is Thin layer Chromatography?
It is the simplest method of qualitative identification of the constituent in drugs.
What is a Spectroscopy?
Used to estimating lower potencies of Homoeopathic Medicines.
What are the different types of spectroscopy?
Infra red spectroscopy (IR), Mass Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Atomic absorption spectroscopy.
What is a Monograph?
It is a detailed record of the standard specification of each drugs or medicine recorded in the pharmacopoeia.
What are the different types of Chromatography procedures?
- Paper chromatography
- Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
- Column chromatography
- High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
What are the different methods of Drug standardization?
- Organoleptic evaluation (by using senses)
- Microscopic evaluation
- Physical evaluation
- Chemical evaluation
- Biological evaluation
Name few medicines in which whole plant is used to prepare medicine?
Aconite, Arnica, Belladonna, Chamomilla, Conium, Drosera, Dulcamara, Hyocyamus, Hypericum, Ledum, Millifolium, Pulsatilla, Ran-bulbosus, Ruta, Spigelia, Stramonium.
Name few medicines in which fresh root are used to prepare medicine?
Arum tryphillum, Bryonia, Cicuta, Phytolacca.
Name few medicines in which dried root is used to prepare medicine?
Calotropis, Ipecac, Rauwalfia.
Name few medicines in which hanging aerial roots are used to prepare medicine?
Ficus indica .
Name few medicines in which stem are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which rhizome are used to prepare medicine?
Cimicifuga, Gelsemium, Helleborus, Hydrangia, Podophyllum, Rumex, Sanguinaria, Veratrum alb.
Name few medicines in which tubers are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which cones are used to prepare medicine?
Colchicum autumnale, Crocus sativa.
Name few medicines in which bulb are used to prepare medicine?
Allium cepa., Allium sativa.
Name few medicines in which fresh leaves are used to prepare medicine?
Aegle folia, Digitalis, Ficus religiosa, Justicia adhatoda, Kalmia, Rhustox.
Name few medicines in which dried leaves is used to prepare medicine?
Coca, Tabaccum, Eucalyptus.
Name few medicines in which flowers or flowering heads is used to prepare medicine?
Calendula, Eupatorium perf, Cina.
Name few medicines in which dried stigma of flowers is used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which berries are used to prepare medicine?
Agnus castus, Sabal serrulata.
Name few medicines in which nuts are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which fresh seeds are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which dried seeds are used to prepare medicine?
Cocculus, Lathyrus, Nux moschata, Nux vomica, Sabadilla, Staphysagria.
Name few medicines in which bark is used to prepare medicine?
Abies Canadensis, Cinchona (dried outer bark), Mezerium, Cinnamon (inner bark).
Name few medicines in which bark of root is used to prepare medicine?
Baptisia, Berberis, Hammamelis.
Name few medicines in which juice is used to prepare medicine?
Aloe soc (juice of leaves), Anacardium occidentalis (juice of shell), Anacardium orientalis (juice of seed), Opium (gummy juice of poppy).
Name few medicines in which resins are used to prepare medicine?
Abies nigra, Asafoetida .
Name few medicines in which gum-resins are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which oleo-resins are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which balsams are used to prepare medicine?
Balsamum peruvianum, Balsamumtolutanum.
Name few medicines in which fixed oils is used to prepare medicine?
Ricinus oil, Coconut oil, Olive oil.
Name few medicines in which volatie oils is used to prepare medicine?
Eucalyptus, Cinnamomum, Lavender, Oleum santali,Terebinth.
Name few medicines in which algae are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which fungi are used to prepare medicine?
Agaricus, Bovista, Secale cor, Ustilago.
Name few medicines in which liches are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which bryophyta are used to prepare medicine?
Name few medicines in which pteriophyta are used to prepare medicine?
Lycopodium, Filix mas, Equisetum.
Name of alkaloids present in Belladonna?
Name of alkaloids present in Nux vom?
Name of alkaloids present in Cinchona?
Quinidine, Quinine, Cinchonine.
Name of alkaloids present in Ipecac?
Name of alkaloids present in Secale cor?
Name of alkaloids present in Opium?
Name the resinoids of Apocyanum cannabinum?
Name the resinoids of Baptisia tinctoria?
Name the resinoids of Iris versicolor?
Name the glycosides of Adonis vemalis?
Name the glycosides of Aloe socotrina?
Name the glycosides of Digitalis?
Name few medicines in which whole organism are used to prepare medicine?
Apis mellifica (in case where only poison is used; Apium virus) Culex muscus – Culex mosquito Formica rufa – Ants Pediculus capitis – head lice , Latrodectus mactans – Black widow spider (poison only also is used), Tarentula cubensis, Tarentula hispanis, Tarentula curassavicum, Sanguisuga officinalis – leech, Helix tosta – Snail,Asterias rubens- star fish.
Name few medicines in which whole dried organism are used to prepare medicine?
Blatta orientalis – Indian cockroach, Cantharis – Spanish fly.
Ova tosta is prepared from which substances?
Toasted egg shell of hen (syn. Calcarea ovorum).
Ovi gallinae pellicula is prepared from which substances?
Membrane of egg shell.
Carbo animalis is prepared from which substances?
Animal charcol —from Hide of Ox or Cow.
Orchitinum is prepared from which substances? Testicular extract of men.
Oophorinum is prepared from which substances?
Ovarian extract of cow or sheep.
Mephitis mephitica is prepared from which substances?
Fluid secretion of the anal gland of wild cat.
Moschus moschiferus is prepared from which substances?
Dried secretion of preputial follicles of male musk- deer.
Castoreum is prepared from which substances?-The extract of preputial sacs of the Beaver.
Fel tauri is prepared from which substances? Fresh gall of Ox.
Serum anguillar ichthotoxin is prepared from which substances?
Eel serum (pisces).
Ophiotoxins is prepared from which substances? Snake venom.
Crotalus horridus is prepared from which substances?
Elaps corallinus is prepared from which substances?
Lachesis tngonocephalus is prepared from which substances?
Name the medicine which is prepared form Lizard poison?
Name the medicine which is prepared form Scorpion poison?
Name the medicine which is prepared form honey bee poison?
Name the medicine which is prepared form toad poison?
Name few medicines which are prepared from organic compound?
Name few medicines which are prepared from minerals?
Anthrakokali, Graphites, Hekla-lava, Silicea.
Name few medicines which are prepared from mineral spring water?
Sanicula / Aqua sanicula, Lapis alba, Wiesbaden, Skookum chuck.
Name the medicines which are prepared from Nosode of Whooping cough?
Coqveluchinum / Pertussin
Name the medicines which are prepared from Nosode of Plague?
Pestinum / Plaguinum.
Name the medicines which are prepared from Nosode of Scirrhous cancer?
Name the medicines which are prepared from Nosode of syphilitic lesion?
Syphillinum / Leuticum.
What is Solution?
A solution is a chemically and physically homogenous mixture of two or more substances.
What is Decantation?
Decantation is a process of slowly and carefully pouring out liquids from one vessel to another without disturbing the sediment that has been accumulated at the bottom of the liquid.
What is Filtration?
Filtration is a process of separation of a liquid fro substances insoluble in that liquid with the help of filtering medium.
What is Distillation?
Distillation is a process of converting a liquid into a gas and condensing the gas back into liquid.
What is Desiccation?
Desiccation is a process of removing water from a substance at moderate temperature. ??????
What is Precipitation?
Precipitation is the process of separating a solid from its solution by the aid of physical or chemical action.
What is Crystallization?
Crystallization is the process of separating substances in forms possessing definite geometric shapes.
What is Sifting/Sieving?
Sifting is a process of separating finer portion of comminuted drugs from coarer particles by tge use of a sieve.
What are the Synonyms of Placebo?
What is Simple syrup?
It is a solution of sucrose and purified water.
What are the uses of Simple syrup?
- It is a sweet vehicle.
- Mother tincture dispensing.
- Used as placebo.
What is Lanolin?
It is a purified anhydrous fat-like substance prepared from the wool of sheep.
What are the uses of Lanolin?
- It is used as a base in water-absorbable ointment.
- Used as emollient.
- It increases the absorption of the drug from the skin.
What is Isinglass?
Isinglass is a collagen derived from the thin, inner, silver shiny layer of the air bladder of some fishes, particularly sturgeon.
What are the uses of Isinglass?
It is an important component of Plasters.
What is Liniments?
Liniments – (Embrocations) are Vehicle used is olive oil or tincture of soap; ratio 1:9 or 1:4 (HPI) tincture of soap is prepared by mixing soft soap, strong alcohol and purified water
What is Oposeldos?
Opodeldos are semisolid liniments. They are prepared by mixing white curd soap, strong alcohol, purified water and mother tincture.
What is Lotions?
Lotions are liquid suspensions or dispersions in aqueous media. Drug lotion 1:9; Eye lotions 1:99.
What is Cerates?
Cerates are external applications prepared from spermaceti (Spans), white wax (2 parts) almond oil (16 parts).
What is Spermaceti?
Spermaceti is a solid wax obtained from the mixed oils that are recovered from the head and blubber of the sperm whale and bottle-nosed whale.
What are the uses of Spermaceti?
It is employed to give consistency to cerate and ointments.
What are the uses of poultices or cataplasms?
- Reduce pain, provide heat or/ cold and moisture.
- Helps healing of abscess
- Provide medicinal effect.
What is Fomentations?
Fomentations contain no medicines unlike poultices.
What are the different types of fomentations?
- Hot fomentations – Flannel cloth provides heat and moisture
- Dry fomentations – Hot water bottle.
- Cold fomentations – Ice bags
What is Mother Tincture?
It is a solution, pharmaceutically prepared from a substance of plant or animal kingdom by the process of extraction (maceration or percolation) using a suitable menstrum, in a definite proportion as per pharmacopoeia.
What is Mother Solution?
It is a homogenous mixture of a drug substance and a suitable solvent or vehicle (ethanol or purified water) by the process of dissolving in a definite proportion as per pharmacopoeia.
Mother Trituration or Substance?
It is a solid mixture, pharmaceutically prepared from a drug substance, by trituration with a suitable vehicle like sugar of milk, in a definite proportion as per pharmacopoeia.
How will you prepare Arnica hair oil?
Dry roots of Arnica montana are coarsely pulverized and converted into powder form. 10 parts of olive oil is added. Then it is kept in well stopped bottles for about 2 weeks in a warm room. Then the contents are expressed out and the oil is filtered
What are the Parts of a prescription?
- Superscription – Name of patient, age, sex, and address. And also the symbol Rx
- Inscription – Name of the remedy, potency and its quantity. And Nature and quantity of the various vehicles to be employed.
- Subscription – Instructions and directions to the pharmacist.
- Signature – Directions to the patient. And Signature of the doctor with ate and the registration number.
What is Day book?
It is the registry of drug proving where the provers record their symptoms in day by day basis.
Who are the personals comprises in a Drug proving unit?
- Project Director
- Pharmacological adviser
- Panel of investigators
What are the various constituents in plant derivatives?
- Anthraquinine derivatives
- Plant exudates
- Fatty acids
What are the various plant exudates?
- Gummy resins
What are the different classes of Mother tincture preparation according to the Old Hahnemannian method?
Class I: Juicy plant
Class II: Moderately Juicy plants
Class III: least juicy plants.
Class IV: Dried vegetables and animal substances, and fresh animals.
Class V – A&B: Aqueous solutions (Dissolving the medicinal substance in distilled water).
Class VI – A&B: Alcoholic solutions (Dissolving medicinal substances in alcohol).
Class VII: Trituration of medicinal substance into dilutions. Conversion of trituration of the same into dilutions.
Class VIII: Trituration of liquids medicinal substances. Conversion of trituration of the same into dilutions.
Class IX: Trituration of fresh vegitable and animal substances. Conversion of trituration of the same into dilutions.
What is the Drug strength of different classes of Mother Tincture preparation according to the Old Hahnemannian method?
- Class I: 1/2
- Class II: 1/2
- Class III: 1/6.
- Class IV: 1/10
- Class V: Class V-A 1/10 & Class V-B 1/100.
- Class VI: Class VI-A 1/10 & Class VI-B 1/100.
- Class VII:
- Class VIII:
- Class IX:
What is the Ratio of different classes of Mother Tincture preparation according to the Old Hahnemannian method?
- Class I: Ratio 1:1
- ClassII: Ratio 3:2
- Class III: Rratio 1:2
- Class IV: Ratio 1:5
- Class V-A: Ratio 1:9
- Class V-B: Ratio I 99
- Class VI-A: Ratio 1:9
- Class VI-B: Ratio 1:99
- Class VII: Ratio 1 9 or 1:99
- Class VIII: 1:0 or 1:99
- Class IX: Ratio 2:9 or 2:99
What is Maceration?
It is the process of removing the active principles from a drug by allowing the latter to remain at room temperature in contact with the solvent for several days, with frequent agitation.
What kind of substance is used in maceration?
Hard gummy mucilaginous substance of vegetable and animal kingdom or those having much viscid-juice and fats which do not allow alcohol to penetrate or permeate rapidly.
How much time is taken for maceration?
What is Percolation?
It is a process of extracting the soluble constituents of a drug and penetration the mother tincture by the passage of a solvent through the powdered drug contained in a suitable vessel called percolator for a definite period pf time as per directions specified in Pharmacopoeia.
In percolation what kind of substance is used?
Soft, non gummy and non-mucilaginous sub of vegetable and animal kingdom. ????????
Usually percolator is made with what kind of metals?
Percolators are made up of glass, copper, stainless steel, porcelain, or alloys.
How much time taken for collecting tincture from percolator?
What is tow?
It is a sub made up of porous material placed in or above the neck of a percolator to controls the flow of liquid.
What is Dynamization?
It is a process by which the medicinal properties that are latent in natural substances while in their crude state, become aroused, and then become enabled to act in an almost spiritual manner.
What are the different Drugs and Cosmetic acts and rules applied in Homoeopathy?
- Drugs And Cosmetic Act 1940
- Drugs And Cosmetic Rule 1945
- Drugs And Magic Remedy Act 1954
- Drugs and Magic Remedy Rule 1955
- Medicinal And Toiletry Preparation Act 1955
- Dangerous Drug Act 1930
- Dangerous Drug Rules 1957
- Drug Price Control Order 1970, 1971
- Part VI A of drugs and cosmetic act controls the sales and exhibition of drugs
- Part VIIA of drug and cosmetic act controls the manufacture of drugs.
- Part IX A of drug and cosmetic act: labeling and package.
What are the different forms used to obtain sanctions from the autority for prepare, sale, etc. of Homoeopathic medicine?
- Form 19B: Applications for the grant or renewal of license to sell, stock, excibit for sale or distribution.
- Form 20 C: license is provided by the licensing authority in this form for sale, stock, and exibit.
- Form 20 D: licensing for wholesale purposes.
- Form 24 C: application for renuwal or grant for manufacture of medicines
- Form 25 C: license is provided for manufacture in this
- Form 26 C: certificate for renuwal will be given in form 26 C
What are the different component of a Label in a Homoeopathic Medicince?
- Homoeopathic Medicine.
- Name of medicine and its potency.
- Nname and address of the manufacture.
- In case the med contains alcohol, % by vol or vol by weight of the alcoholic content.
- Manufacturing licensing no. Mfg. Lie or M.L.
LABELING OF TINCTURES:. In addition to above should contain a distinctive batch or lot number. Batch No. or Lot No. or LOT or BATCH
What is Eujtriation?
Mixing of rough insoluble substances like chalk etc in water so that the finer light powdery portion of the substances may be poured off after the coarser particles have settled in the bottom. It is done sometimes merely to wash away such impurities as and, gravel etc.